1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Ziziphus Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or shrublets.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate; lamina with margin dentate to serrulate, often markedly asymmetric at the base, with 3–5 nerves from the base; stipules frequently spinescent.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary or rarely terminal, sessile or pedunculate.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, pedicellate.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle obconic.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5.
    Corolla
    Petals 5 (or absent), cucullate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, inserted under the edge of the disk.
    Disc
    Disk flat, covering the receptacle, 5–10-lobed or rarely entire, with margin free.
    Pistil
    Ovary immersed in the disk and adnate to the receptacle, 2(4)-locular; ovules 1 in each loculus; style 2(4)-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe with fleshy exocarp and woody endocarp, (1 )2(4)-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a thin shining testa.
    [FTEA]

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs (or scandent shrubs or almost lianes but not in East Africa), often armed by spinous stipules (or by branch-thorns but not in East Africa), the branchlets often zig-zag
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate; blades often 3- or 5-nerved from the base and penninerved above, often ovate or elliptic, with serrulate margins (or entire margins but not in East Africa)
    Stipules
    Stipules present, often at some nodes transformed into short spines, some of which are recurved, the stipules small, subulate and quickly deciduous at those nodes where they are not so transformed
    Flowers
    Flowers 5-merous, bisexual, usually in axillary cymes or thyrselets, perigynous
    Corolla
    Petals present (or absent but not in tropical Africa), clasping the stamens or at least at some stages clasping the filaments
    Disc
    Disk usually thickened near, but never coherent to, the sides of the ovary
    Ovary
    Ovary 2–4-celled (3 cells are very rare and 4 cells absent in East Africa)
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe with a single stone; cells 2 or 3 (or 4 but not in East Africa).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil North, Bulgaria, California, Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, Georgia, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maldives, Mauritius, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Southwest Caribbean, Taiwan, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Utah, Venezuelan Antilles, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yugoslavia

    Ziziphus Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Suessenguth in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20D: 123 (1953).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 379
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gard. Dict. Abridg. ed. 3 (1754).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Abbrev. Gard. Dict. [unpaginated] (1754)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0