1. Scrophulariaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Scrophulariaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees
Leaves
Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, mostly zygomorphic
Calyx
Calyx imbricate or valvate
Corolla
Corolla-lobes imbricate
Androecium
Stamens often 4 or 2, rarely 5, inserted on the corolla and alternate with the lobes, sometimes the fifth stamen represented by a staminode; filaments free from each other; anthers 1-2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovules numerous on axile placentas Ovary superior, entire, usually 2-celled; style terminal
Fruits
Fruit a capsule or berry
Seeds
Seeds numerous, with fleshy endosperm
[FZ]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Habit
Annual or perennial, terrestrial, amphibious or aquatic herbs, or leafless parasitic herbs lacking chlorophyll, shrubs or undershrubs, rarely trees, glabrous, variously pubescent or glandular-viscid
Leaves
Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected, or reduced to scales, estipulate
Inflorescences
Pedicels ebracteolate or bibracteolate Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal spikes, racemes, heads or panicles, arranged in racemes or cymes
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, usually irregular, at times subregular
Calyx
Calyx inferior, persistent, usually 5-lobed, occasionally 4-, or rarely 3-lobed, usually more or less united, campanulate, tubular, or shortly so almost lacking distinct tube, equal, unequal, valvate, variously overlapping or open in bud
Corolla
Corolla tubular, campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above; tube straight or variously curved to geniculate, at times basally produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 5- or 4-lobed, rarely 3–8-lobed, lobes subequal, more or less spreading, or clearly bilabiate with upper lip entire, emarginate or bilobed, erect, concave or galeate or at times flat or spreading, lower lip 3- (rarely 4-) lobed, spreading
Androecium
Stamens 4, didynamous or equal, or 2 with occasionally 2 reduced to staminodes, or 5 with fifth subrudimentary, rarely perfect Filaments inserted in corolla tube or at throat, filiform or dilated, occasionally with lower variously appendaged at base Anthers 1- orbilocular, free or frequently coherent, cells similar or with one smaller and sterile, connective often produced into 2 branches, each bearing cell
Gynoecium
Ovules many to numerous in each cell Ovary superior, sessile, entire, 2-, or rarely 3-celled, placentation central; style simple, entire or shortly cleft at apex; stigma small, capitate or clavate
Fruits
Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, sometimes both, occasionally dehiscing by pores, rarely indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds small, numerous, variously shaped, pitted, ridged or ribbed, rarely smooth
[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Habit
Herbs, undershrubs, sometimes climbers or shrubs, rarely trees; many partial root parasites, a few wholly parasitic
Leaves
Leaves exstipulate, simple, alternate or opposite (especially lower ones), rarely all basal or the upper-most whorled, often variously lobed or dissected, toothed or entire
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic (sometimes very slightly) usually in bracteate spikes or racemes, less often solitary in leaf-axils, or in cymes
Calyx
Calyx persistent; calyx-tube campanulate, tubular or almost none; calyx-teeth usually 4 or 5, rarely 3, sometimes calyx 2-lipped, valvate, imbricate or open in bud
Corolla
Corolla united; tube campanulate, cylindric or ventricose or enlarged above, straight or curved or bent, sometimes very short, sometimes with 1 or 2 spurs or sacs at the base, usually 4- or 5-lobed with the lobes more or less equal and all spreading, or distinctly 2-lipped, with the upper lip entire or 2-lobed, lower lip usually 3-lobed
Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous or 2, rarely 3, 5 or 6–8; staminodes sometimes present
Ovary
Ovary superior, 2-locular, ovules numerous
Fruits
Fruit usually capsular, septicidal or loculicidal, rarely a berry and indehiscent, or fruit separating into 2 cocci.

Images

Scrophulariaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 117. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Scrophulariae") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/