Skip to main content

Papaver rhoeas was formerly described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication Species Plantarum in 1753. Papaver, also 'pappa', is the Latin for food or milk and rhoeas means red in Greek. The common poppy is thought to be native to the eastern Mediterranean region, and it seems likely that it was introduced to northwest Europe in the seed-corn of early settlers. The delicate red flowers are an attractive and popular feature of the countryside, and have long been recognised as symbols of fertility and death.

Papaver rhoeas (common poppy)

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
A distinctive symbol of remembrance, the common poppy has seeds that can lie dormant for over 80 years.

Papaver rhoeas was formerly described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication Species Plantarum in 1753. Papaver, also 'pappa', is the Latin for food or milk and rhoeas means red in Greek. The common poppy is thought to be native to the eastern Mediterranean region, and it seems likely that it was introduced to northwest Europe in the seed-corn of early settlers. The delicate red flowers are an attractive and popular feature of the countryside, and have long been recognised as symbols of fertility and death.

The flowers have been used in treating mild pain caused by earache, toothache and neuralgia, and an infusion of the petals is traditionally taken for coughs, insomnia and poor digestion.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

The common poppy is thought to be native to southern Europe, North Africa and temperate Asia. It has become naturalised outside of this range and is now widespread throughout much of Europe, Asia and North America.

Description

Overview: An annual herb growing up to 60 cm tall, with white latex and slender roots.

Leaves: Once or twice pinnately lobed, cut or toothed and stiffly hairy. The basal leaves are stalked, but the upper leaves are sessile (attached to the stem without a stalk).

Flowers: The showy scarlet flowers are 7-10 cm in diameter and are supported on long hairy stalks. The two free sepals fall as the flower opens. Each flower bears four rounded, overlapping, papery petals, which are normally vibrant blood red, though occasionally pink or white, and often have a dark blotch at the base. The petals are crumpled when in bud. The stamens (male parts) are numerous and the anthers (pollen-bearing parts) are bluish-black, and borne on slender black filaments. The stigma (female part that receives the pollen) is a disk with 8-12 rays.

Fruit: A smooth, hairless capsule 1-2 cm long, which is almost globose and no more than twice as long as wide.

Seeds: The small seeds are released through pores that open at the top of the capsule. They can remain dormant in the soil for 80 years or more.

Symbol of remembrance

The large, four-petalled, scarlet flowers of the common poppy have been adopted as a symbol of remembrance since 11th November 1921 when the Royal British Legion held its first 'Poppy Day'.

Poppy seeds can lie dormant in the soil for over 80 years before germinating, which is usually triggered by disturbance of the soil. During the First World War the battlefields were often churned up into a sea of mud, and left strewn with fallen soldiers. The contrast between this horrendous sight and the following flush of poppies, seemingly 'healing' the broken land, inspired Canadian volunteer medical officer Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae to write the poem In Flanders Fields :

'In Flanders fields the poppies blowBetween the crosses, row on row…'

The practice of wearing artificial poppies has been adopted in many countries on Remembrance Day, in honour and remembrance of veterans and those who have lost their lives during wars.

Poppies and the cycle of life

The association between poppies and the cycle of life has a long history, partly due to the fertile nature of the plant. A single plant can produce up to 60,000 seeds, which extrapolates to hundreds of millions of seeds in a field. It is also a result of the association of poppies with crop plants, and the yearly cycle of sowing seeds and reaping the harvest.

Poppy seeds have been found mixed with Egyptian barley grains from around 2500 BC, and poppy seed heads were often associated with corn in images of the Roman crop goddess Ceres (or her Greek equivalent, Demeter).

Threats and conservation

The common poppy suffered a decline with the advent of intensive agriculture and the increasing use of herbicides after the Second World War, but had a revival in Britain in the 1980s as a result of the policy of 'set-aside' in which farmers were rewarded for taking agricultural land out of production.

Uses

Common poppy is a cultural icon which has become associated with wartime remembrance, especially during Remembrance Day (or Anzac Day in some Commonwealth countries). 

Poppy seeds have a nutty taste and are much used as a flavouring in cakes and bread, and the seed oil is highly esteemed in France and elsewhere. Young leaves of poppy can be eaten raw or cooked like spinach, and used to flavour soups and salads. They are best used when tender before the plant has produced flower buds.

The petals are a source of red dye used in some medicines and wines. Dried petals are occasionally used to give colour to pot-pourris.

Shirley poppies are ornamental cultivars of the common poppy, with petals ranging in colour from shades of scarlet and orange, to pink, yellow and white, in single, semi-double or double forms.

Common poppies are sometimes added to wildflower seed mixtures for habitat restoration and to create colourful annual displays of previously common cornfield flowers.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

17 collections of Papaver rhoeas seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

For further information on Papaver rhoeas seeds see Kew's Seed Information Database.

Seed Information Database

Cultivation

The popularly grown Shirley poppies are members of a cultivar group derived from Papaver rhoeas . These were selected by the Reverend William Wilks, who was the vicar of the parish of Shirley in England in the 1880s. Shirley poppies typically have a pale centre, although cultivars ranging from pure scarlet to pure white are available.

Common poppy at Kew

During the summer, the common poppy can often be seen growing in the Queen's Garden behind Kew Palace.

Pressed and dried specimens of Papaver rhoea s are held in the Herbarium, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. The details of one of these can be seen online on the Herbarium Catalogue.

The Economic Botany Collection includes flowers and petals of the common poppy.

Ecology
Agricultural fields, roadsides and wasteland.
Conservation
Common and widespread; not of conservation concern.
Hazards

Various alkaloids are present in all parts of the plant; potentially poisonous to horses, cattle and sheep if eaten in large quantities, but unlikely to cause human poisoning.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
adormidera, amapola, amapola común, ababol

[KSP]
Use
Medicinal, edible (seeds), ornamental (Shirley poppies), red dye (petals), cultural icon (wartime remembrance).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Finland, Great Britain, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Iowa, Ireland, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, Sweden, Taiwan, Tasmania, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

English
Common poppy

Papaver rhoeas L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 31, 2011 Day, C.D. [491], Turkey K000341566
Oct 31, 2011 Day, C.D. [192], Turkey K000341568
Sintenis, P. [303], Turkey K000653117
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8120], India K001129009
Cope, T.A. [RBG 383], Great Britain K000914024
s.coll. [Cat. no. 8120], Bangladesh K001129008
Cope, T.A. [RBG 383], Great Britain K000914025

First published in Sp. Pl.: 507 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Cullen, J. (1966). Flora Iranica 34: 1-27. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1965). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 1: 1-567. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2001). Flora Nordica 2: 1-430. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, M.F. & al. (eds.) (2011). Flora of Nepal 3: 1-425. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Bown, D. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M. (1987). Flora of the British Isles. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Cooper, M.R., Johnson, A.W. & Dauncey, E.A. (2003). Poisonous Plants and Fungi: An Illustrated Guide. 2nd Edition. TSO, London.
  • Davidson, A. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd Edition (edited by T. Jaine). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Mabey, R. (1997). Flora Britannica. Chatto & Windus, London.
  • The International Plant Names Index (2008).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). https://bsbi.org/archaeophytes epublication.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cullen, J. (1966). Flora Iranica 34: 1-27. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1965). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 1: 1-567. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2001). Flora Nordica 2: 1-430. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, M.F. & al. (eds.) (2011). Flora of Nepal 3: 1-425. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 7: 1-499. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0