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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. European Russia to NW. China and Pakistan.

[FTEA]

Cannabaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
A rough, rather rank-smelling, leafy, simple or branched herb 0.9–4.5 m. tall, the male plants taller and more slender, dying soon after flowering, the females stockier and living several months after pollination; stems angular, covered with rather short stiffish hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–7(–11)-foliolate; petioles 3–7.5 cm. long, pubescent; leaflets sessile, narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–15 cm. long, 0.35–2 cm. wide, tapering-acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base, the margins coarsely toothed, covered on both surfaces with very short bristly hairs and small yellow glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male and female flowers on different plants or rarely on one plant but then one sex predominating.
sex Male
Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered. Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.
sex Female
Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteole green, acuminate, enwrapping the ovary and forming a basally swollen tubular sheath 1.8–8.5 mm. long, up to 6 mm. wide opened out, covered with slender hairs and short-stalked or stalkless circular resin-secreting glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ± globose, ± 1–1.2 mm. in diameter; stigmas slender, 1.2–7 mm. long, deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene (“seed ”, actually consisting of the seed with a hard shell tightly covered by the thin ovary wall) ellipsoid or subglobose, slightly compressed, keeled, shiny, 2.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide, greyish to brownish and usually covered with a pale “ map-like ” network.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Widely and illegally cultivated as a drug plant, also frequent as a weed of cultivation; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 P T1 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 Z a central Asian plant now widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the world

[FZ]

Cannabaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
An erect, rank smelling, annual herb up to 2(4.5) m. tall; male plants taller and more slender with longer narrower leaflets than the female, dying soon after flowering; female plants short, more robust, with densely leafy inflorescences, the plants living for several months after pollination.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum of most parts consisting of minute appressed swollen-based hairs.
Morphology Stem
Stems simple or branched, leafy, angular, often with hollow internodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–7(11)-digitately-foliolate; petiole 2–6 cm. long; stipule to 1.4 cm. long, linear, acute; leaflets sessile, 2.5–15 x 0.35–2 cm., narrowly lanceolate, tapering acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base; margin coarsely dentate to serrate-biserrate; lamina membranous-chartaceous, shortly coarsely-hairy and yellow-glandular on both surfaces, penninerved, midrib prominent beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male and female flowers rarely both on 1 plant, if so then 1 predominating. Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous. Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy. Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.
sex Male
Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy. Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.
sex Female
Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous. Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3–4 x 2–3.5 mm., globular to ovoid, surface uniformly coloured, pale with a prominent reticulate pattern of venation or, where a persistent perianth is present, shiny brownish or greyish, mottled with a light and dark marbled pattern, venation visible beneath.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 2600 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FWTA]

Cannabinaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Vernacular
The Common, European or Indian Hemp.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Pakistan, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Senegal, Sicilia, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Cannabis sativa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2013 Vitek, E. [05.1335], Austria K000618118
May 1, 2004 Nguembou, C. [629], Cameroon K000198667
Latilo, M.G. [34213], Nigeria 11029.000
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4665], Nepal K001039639
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4665], Myanmar K001039640
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039631
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039632
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665], India K001039633
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665], India K001039634
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039635
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039636
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039637
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039638
Trail, J.W.H. [716], Brazil Cannabis sativa subsp. indica K001202656

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1027 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Persson, C. & Ståhl, B. (2014). Flora of Ecuador 91: 1-76. Gothenburg University.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Barina, Z., Rakaj, m. & Pifkó, D. (2013). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 4 Willdenowia 43: 165-184.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Skvortsov, A.K. (2011). Zametka o dvukh sredneaziatskich topolyakh Byulleten' Glavnogo Botaniceskogo Sada 195: 32-37.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1989). Flora of Australia 3: 1-219. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • J. H. Holland, The Useful Plants of Nigeria, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series IX, 4: 614
  • Chev. Bot. 590.
  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 16

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Persson, C. & Ståhl, B. (2014). Flora of Ecuador 91: 1-76. Gothenburg University.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Barina, Z., Rakaj, m. & Pifkó, D. (2013). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 4 Willdenowia 43: 165-184.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Skvortsov, A.K. (2011). Zametka o dvukh sredneaziatskich topolyakh Byulleten' Glavnogo Botaniceskogo Sada 195: 32-37.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Miller in Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 188, etc. (1970).
  • Stearn in Joyce & Curry (eds.), The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis: 1–10, fig. 1–7 (1970).
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 96 (1969).
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