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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. European Russia to Xinjiang and Pakistan.

[FTEA]

Cannabaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

Morphology General Habit
A rough, rather rank-smelling, leafy, simple or branched herb 0.9–4.5 m. tall, the male plants taller and more slender, dying soon after flowering, the females stockier and living several months after pollination; stems angular, covered with rather short stiffish hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–7(–11)-foliolate; petioles 3–7.5 cm. long, pubescent; leaflets sessile, narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–15 cm. long, 0.35–2 cm. wide, tapering-acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base, the margins coarsely toothed, covered on both surfaces with very short bristly hairs and small yellow glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male and female flowers on different plants or rarely on one plant but then one sex predominating.
sex Male
Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered. Male inflorescence loosely paniculate, up to 18 cm. long, covered with minute bristly hairs; flowers whitish to yellowish-green; sepals oblong-elliptic, 2.8–4 mm. long, 1–1.6 mm. wide, minutely hairy; stamens at length pendulous, the filaments about 0.3–1 mm. long and the anthers 3–3.7 mm. long.
sex Female
Female inflorescences not projecting from the leaves, more compact, short and few-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteole green, acuminate, enwrapping the ovary and forming a basally swollen tubular sheath 1.8–8.5 mm. long, up to 6 mm. wide opened out, covered with slender hairs and short-stalked or stalkless circular resin-secreting glands.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ± globose, ± 1–1.2 mm. in diameter; stigmas slender, 1.2–7 mm. long, deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achene (“seed ”, actually consisting of the seed with a hard shell tightly covered by the thin ovary wall) ellipsoid or subglobose, slightly compressed, keeled, shiny, 2.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide, greyish to brownish and usually covered with a pale “ map-like ” network.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
Widely and illegally cultivated as a drug plant, also frequent as a weed of cultivation; 0–2100 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 P T1 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 Z a central Asian plant now widely cultivated and naturalized throughout the world

[FZ]

Cannabaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

Morphology General Habit
An erect, rank smelling, annual herb up to 2(4.5) m. tall; male plants taller and more slender with longer narrower leaflets than the female, dying soon after flowering; female plants short, more robust, with densely leafy inflorescences, the plants living for several months after pollination.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum of most parts consisting of minute appressed swollen-based hairs.
Morphology Stem
Stems simple or branched, leafy, angular, often with hollow internodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–7(11)-digitately-foliolate; petiole 2–6 cm. long; stipule to 1.4 cm. long, linear, acute; leaflets sessile, 2.5–15 x 0.35–2 cm., narrowly lanceolate, tapering acuminate at the apex, narrowly cuneate at the base; margin coarsely dentate to serrate-biserrate; lamina membranous-chartaceous, shortly coarsely-hairy and yellow-glandular on both surfaces, penninerved, midrib prominent beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male and female flowers rarely both on 1 plant, if so then 1 predominating. Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous. Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy. Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.
sex Male
Male inflorescences numerous, loosely cymose-paniculate, sparsely leafy, up to 20(30) cm. long, few to more than 20-flowered; bracts to c. 15 mm. long, bristly-hairy. Male flowers small, pedicellate, regular: pedicels to 7 mm. long; perianth lobes free, greenish or white, 3–4 x 1 mm., oblong-elliptic, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed, appressed-pubescent outside; stamens at length pendulous, filaments 0.3–1 mm. long, anthers 3-- mm. long.
sex Female
Female flowers ± sessile; enveloping bracteole 2–8 mm. long, green; perianth thin, undivided, enveloping ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms); ovary sessile, c. 1 mm. in diam., ± globose; stigma branches (1)2–5 mm. long, pubescent, caducous. Female inflorescence short, crowded or strobilate, few-flowered, densely leafy; bracts often shorter than in male flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3–4 x 2–3.5 mm., globular to ovoid, surface uniformly coloured, pale with a prominent reticulate pattern of venation or, where a persistent perianth is present, shiny brownish or greyish, mottled with a light and dark marbled pattern, venation visible beneath.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 2600 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FWTA]

Cannabinaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Vernacular
The Common, European or Indian Hemp.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Pakistan, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Free State, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Marquesas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Cannabis sativa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2013 Vitek, E. [05.1335], Austria K000618118
Feb 1, 2010 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 126], Vietnam K000611364
May 1, 2004 Nguembou, C. [629], Cameroon K000198667
Latilo, M.G. [34213], Nigeria 11029.000
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039638
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4665], Nepal K001039639
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039631
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039635
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039632
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4665], Myanmar K001039640
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039637
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665], India K001039634
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665] K001039636
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4665], India K001039633
Trail, J.W.H. [716], Brazil Cannabis sativa subsp. indica K001202656

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1027 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
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  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
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  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barina, Z., Rakaj, m. & Pifkó, D. (2013). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 4 Willdenowia 43: 165-184.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
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  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
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  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
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  • Skvortsov, A.K. (2011). Zametka o dvukh sredneaziatskich topolyakh Byulleten' Glavnogo Botaniceskogo Sada 195: 32-37.
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Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 590.
  • J. H. Holland, The Useful Plants of Nigeria, Kew Bulletin, Additional Series IX, 4: 614
  • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 16

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barina, Z., Rakaj, m. & Pifkó, D. (2013). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 4 Willdenowia 43: 165-184.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Persson, C. & Ståhl, B. (2014). Flora of Ecuador 91: 1-76. Gothenburg University.
  • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Skvortsov, A.K. (2011). Zametka o dvukh sredneaziatskich topolyakh Byulleten' Glavnogo Botaniceskogo Sada 195: 32-37.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 17 (1953).
  • Engl in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 1 (Moraceae): 44 (1898).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 162 (1895).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 280 (1952).
  • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 176 (1948).
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 994 (1900).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 623 (1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1027 (1753).
  • Miller in Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 188, etc. (1970).
  • Purseglove, Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons 1: 40, fig. 4 (1968).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 169 (1949).
  • Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 16 (1916).
  • Schreiber in Hegi, Illustr. Fl. Mitt.-Eur., ed. 2, 3(1): 290–295, fig. 136–7, t. 88/1 (1958) [very full account].
  • Stearn in Joyce & Curry (eds.), The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis: 1–10, fig. 1–7 (1970).
  • Trease, Textbook of Pharmacognosy: 216,fig. 75 (1952) [floral structure].
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 96 (1969).

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