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This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and for dessert and food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type a plant cultivated in the Hortus Botanicus Matritensis, Madrid (Spain), raised from unknown origin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2–13 cm long, simple or 2–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2>i>–13 cm long, simple or 2>i>–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 7–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14–18 mm across; lobes 6–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14>i>–18 mm across; lobes 6>i>–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 1–1. 5 mm long; anthers 4.5–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther Stamen filaments 1>i>–1.5 mm long; anthers 4.5>i>–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1–1. 5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 5–7 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3>i>–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform Seeds yellowish, 4>i>–5 × 3>i>–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform.
Ecology
Quite widely naturalized in forest regions of Africa. Forest, mountain slopes, Pinus plantations, ruderal places and other areas of disturbance particularly near roadsides in damp soil; sunny or partly shady places; up to 1158 m (1750 m in Angola).
Note
R.E. Fries, loc. cit., records this species also from Zambia (Mporokoso). Common name: "Tree Tomato". Recent molecular studies find Cyphomandra, formerly comprising about 35 species, nested within Solanum and with a number of species showing transitional features, so that it now seems best included as a subgenus of Solanum, see Spooner, Anderson & Jansen in Amer. J. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993) and Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995).
Distribution
Originally from Peru, now widely distributed all over the world in warm but also in temperate regions, often cultivated as a food crop mainly in the Andean Region. Zimbabwe Malawi ZIM E, MAL C
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous. Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1.5–11.5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4>i>–36 × 1.5>i>–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves. Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1. 5–11. 5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4–36 × 1. 5–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers fragrant; pedicels 7>i>–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker. Flowers fragrant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3.5>i>–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1>i>–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened. Calyx 3.5–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1>i>–1.5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous; style 5>i>–7 mm long.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated in Hortus Madrid from seed of unknown origin in 1798–9, Cavanilles s.n. (MA, lecto. designated by Bohs in Flora Neotropica, 63: 51 (1994))
Morphology General
Shrub or small tree to 7 m high, rarely herbaceous, often malodorous; younger parts hispid, with a mixture of small spreading simple eglandular- and glandularheaded hairs, older parts glabrescent and often with small whitish spots
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually solitary and alternate, rarely opposite, simple, coriaceous, often dark green, often foetid when bruised, broadly ovate to cordate, 10.8–40 × 5.6–26 cm, bases usually cordate occasionally unequal sometimes auriculate with overlapping or clasping lobes, margins entire , apices acuminate, surfaces prominently veined and softly hispid with hairs denser on lower surfaces, midribs and veins; petioles 2.4–13 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal pendulous lax long (–60 cm) cymes, simple, forked or branched arising from stem fork or leaf axil and often appearing axillary, (5–)10–50(–100)-flowered, up to 15 cm long; flowers often fragrant, actinomorphic; peduncles 1.5–2.2 cm long in flower and 1.8–5 cm in fruit; pedicels always pendulous, 6–16 mm long in flower, ± hispid, 1.6–5.2 cm long in fruit when woody and thickened, articulate at or near the base leaving rachis scars
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx fleshy, cyathiform, 2.5–4.5 mm long, sparsely hirsute with glandular hairs externally, with five broadly triangular acute or apiculate lobes 1–2.5 × 1.9–3 mm, slightly accrescent and persistent in fruit when 1.5–4 × 2.5–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, pink or pale purple, stellate, fleshy, 1.3–2 cm diameter, tube 1.5–3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular, usually spreading after anthesis with apices recurved, 7–11 × 2–4 mm, acute to acuminate, lobe margins densely pilose internally, otherwise glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal, connivent; filaments pale pink, free for 1.5–2 mm, glabrous; anthers bright yellow or orange, 4.5–6 × 1.3–2.9 mm, dehiscing by small apical pores, with broad connective forming darker gibbose thickened band (0.7–1.2 mm) along backs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary greenish-white, 4 × 2–3 mm, glabrous, bilocular; style greenish-white, 5–6(–7) × 0.7–0.8 mm, glabrous, exserted up to 2 mm; stigma greenish-white, truncate to subcapitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.6–0.7 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit pendulous, sub-fleshy, orange to dark red or purple, dull, ovoid to ellipsoidal, (2.2–)5–10 × 2–5 cm, with acute or acuminate apex, pericarp thick and smooth, softly pubescent to glabrous, bilocular; fruiting calyx lobes adherent becoming reflexed basally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, pale reddish-brown, discoid, (3–)4–4.2 × (2.5) 3–3.8 mm, rugose, shallowly reticulate-foveate with narrow winged margin; sclerotic granules sometimes present
Ecology
Introduced and naturalised (following bird dispersal) on roadsides, drier and moist forest types , often in deep shade, clearings or on wet ground; 1050–2050 m
Note
Commonly known as the tree tomato or tamarillo, the fruits are eaten raw, stewed or made into jam which has a pleasant fragrant taste, though the unripe fruits are considered slightly toxic. The fruits have a high vitamin content, with large amounts of ascorbic acid and vitamin D and they are very rich in carotene, making them good sources of pro-vitamin A. Despite the inflorescences bearing large numbers of flowers, only 1–5 fruits mature on each infructescence; these are predominantly bird-dispersed. The natural range and place of origin of S. betaceum remains conjectural (cf. Bohs, 1989). Truly wild populations are unknown though there are tentative reports of them occurring in Bolivia and NW Argentina; the plants are almost always associated with human habitation, with its possible depiction on pre-Colombian Peruvian pottery vessels suggesting that this species might have been domesticated by prehistoric inhabitants of the Andes (Bohs, 1989). This, however, has been disputed by some researchers who favour the relatively recent domestication of this species. It is now widely cultivated for both culinary and ornamental purposes in subtropical countries throughout the world including India, SE Asia, New Zealand and Australia as well as Africa.  Hunziker (Genera Solanaceae: 320 (2001)) summarized the alkaloid mixture isolated from ‘ Cyphomandra betacea’ roots, surmising that this seemed to be the first reported species of a plant with atropine-like alkaloids and edible fruits. Amines and amides have also been found in ‘ C. betacea’ (Bohs, 1989). Medicinal uses of this species include the use of warmed leaves in poultices for sore throats, fruit pulp in poultices for inflammed tonsils. The leaves have also been used as a source of dyes (cf. Bohs, 1989). This is the only species of ‘ Cyphomandra’ found in the FTEA region where it is universally known as C. betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. This genus has largely been separated from Solanum on the basis of a thickened connective separating the two anther thecae – which appears as a thickened column on the backs of the anthers. Indeed the generic name is derived from the Greek kyphos meaning a tumour or curve and andros meaning male and referring to this curved thickened anther connective. The volatile perfumes produced in the epidermal cells of this connective attract pollinating male euglossine bees (cf. Hunziker, 2001).
Distribution
Flora districts: U2 U4 T2 T3 T7 Range: Probably native to Bolivia or NW Argentina Range: Cultivated, often naturalised in Ghana, Congo, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Angola, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Natal) and Madagascar Range: Tropical and subtropical South and Central America, the West Indies, Spain, India, China, Papua New Guinea, Australia

>

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Eaten by birds and insects (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Food
Infructescences - The fruit is used to make juices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Food Fruits Dessert Fruits
Infructescences - Edible fruit, used for desserts (Romero Castañeda 1961).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Niue, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Pepino de árbol, tomae, tomate de árbol.

Solanum betaceum Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 2004 Jacobs, M. [4440] K000096574
May 1, 2004 Johnson, L. [8350], Australia K000096577
May 1, 2004 Afriastini, J.J. [772] K000096573
May 1, 2004 Clute, W.N. [220], Jamaica K000096569
May 1, 2004 Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K000096578
May 1, 2004 Frodin, D.G. [657] K000096575
May 1, 2004 Hernández, A.C. [49], Mexico K000096542
May 1, 2004 Tweedie [s.n.] K001058084
May 1, 2004 Glaziou [7789], Brazil K001058085
Gillett, J.B. [17583], Tanzania K001157064
Dawkins, H.C. [D721], Uganda K001157067
Eggeling, W.J. [3094], Uganda K001157065
Eggeling, W.J. [s.n.], Uganda K001157066
Morton, J.K. [K852], Cameroon K001155898
Stauffer, H.U. [537], Congo K001155897
Streimann, H. [8710], Papua New Guinea K001153715
Friis, I. [2187], Ethiopia K001156081
Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159002
Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159003
Vink, W. [16343], Papua New Guinea K001168398
Lehmann, F.C. [6433], Ecuador K001163042
Lehmann, F.C. [7818], Ecuador K001163049
Raynal, T. [20565], Rwanda K001155899
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158456
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158457
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158458
Beaman, J.H. [9453], Malaysia K001153395
Steyermark, J.A. [95189] K001163048
Nee, M. [38493], Bolivia K001163058
Eyerdam, W.J. [25355], Bolivia K001163054
Chase, M.W. [12267K], Guatemala K001168402
Eggers, H. [15069], Ecuador K001163050
Holton, I.F. [s.n.], Colombia K001163043
Sperling, C.R. [5406], Bolivia K001163056
Klug, G. [4192], Peru K001163053
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157068
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157069
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157071
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157072
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157073
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157074
McLean [s.n.], Peru K001168401
Goudot [101] K001163045
Gamble, J.S. [16860], India K001168396
Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [10241] K001168400
Cabrera, A.L. [27868], Argentina K001167945
Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K000441080
Solomon, J.C. [11227], Bolivia K001163057
Solomon, J.C. [11050], Bolivia K001163059
Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K001163060
Little Jr., E.L. [6173], Ecuador K001163051
Sigara [297], Kenya K001157059
Sigara [297], Tanzania K001157062
Bruijn, J. de [1439], Venezuela K001163047
Wendelberger [34], Uganda K001157070
Venugopal, N. [22422] K001168395
Bang, A.M. [2337], Bolivia K001163055
Drummond, R.B. [2408], Kenya K001157061
Drummond, R.B. [2408], Tanzania K001157063
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000195203 Unknown type material
Kalbreyer, W. [1019], Colombia K001163044
Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K001155369
s.coll [7272], Indonesia K001168397
s.coll [4418], India K001168399
s.coll [s.n.] K001168403
s.coll [s.n.] K001168404
s.coll [s.n.] K001168406
s.coll [s.n.] K001168407
s.coll [s.n.] K001168409
s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168411
s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168412
s.coll [94289] K001157060
s.coll [s.n.] K001163046
Silva, M. de [3421], Angola K001029817
Martin, R. [1727], Peru K001163052
Tweedie [s.n.] K001168408
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001168410
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [924], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212619
Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1803], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212620
Oct 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1041], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212622
Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [79], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212621
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [34], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000109664
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3603], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000339144
Cyphomandra betacea 7102.000
Dawkins, H.C. [721], Uganda Cyphomandra betacea 2535.000

First published in Anales Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)

Accepted by

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Taxon 44: 584 (1995). TAB. 14.
  • Ann. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Mao, A.A., Odyuo, N., Verma, D. & Singh, P. (2017). Checklist of Flora of Nagaland: 1-196. Botanical Survey of India.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.Z. 8(4): 75 (2005).
  • Solanaceae IV: 293 (1999)
  • Taxon 44: 584 (1995)
  • Rev. Hort.: 150 (1880)
  • Gen. Hist. Dichl. Pl. 4: 108 (1837)
  • Synopsis: 7 (1816)
  • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 169 (1813)
  • Hort. Kew, ed. 2(1): 400 (1810)
  • Icon. 6: 15, t. 524 (1800)
  • Anal. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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