1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Thrixspermum Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to W. Pacific.

    General Description

    Epiphytic, lithophytic, or rarely terrestrial herbs. Stem ascending, climbing or pendent, simple, either with several closely spaced leaves or many well-spaced leaves. Leaves distichously arranged, flat, conduplicate, coriaceous, terete or laterally compressed, articulate to a tubular, sheathing base. Inflorescence lateral, axillary, borne on or between nodes of stem, perforating the leaf-sheaths, racemose, erect or ascending, few- to rarely many-flowered, a few opening at a time; rachis either fractiflex with the flowers biseriate, or straight and congested with flowers omnilateral; floral bracts laterally compressed or not, either distichous and persistent on a flattened rachis or facing all ways on terete rachis. Flowers resupinate, mostly developing sequentially with 1–3 undergoing anthesis at a time, ascending, usually ephemeral, often fully open for only half a day, from a few mm to several cm across. Sepals and petals free, subsimilar, spreading. Lateral sepals decurrent along column foot. Labellum rigidly attached to column foot by a broad base, trilobed, concave, saccate but not truly spurred, side lobes erect, midlobe frequently thick and fleshy distally, disc usually with a partly hairy or papillose front-wall apical callus or with one or more thickenings at various locations. Column sometimes winged, not dilated distally, foot well developed, usually broad, frequently concave, not sharply differentiated from base of labellum, clinandrium shallowly excavate; anther cap terminal, operculate, hardly or not rostrate, pollinia four, in two unequal pairs, waxy, semi-globular or linear-oblong, attached by a common stipe, viscidium solitary, often peltate; rostellum shortly bidentate; stigma directly below rostellum, deeply recessed.


    Thrixspermum includes about 168 species collectively distributed from Sri Lanka and the Himalayan region and Taiwan, southeast through Malesia to northern Australia and the Pacific islands, and east to Fiji and Samoa. The centre of distribution appears to be Sumatra.


    Species of Thrixspermum are epiphytes or lithophytes, rarely terrestrials, occurring in rain forests, peat swamp forests, roadside vegetation, and broad-leaved deciduous, riverine, and wet evergreen forests at 0–3400 m.


    No uses have been reported for Thrixspermum. Several species are cultivated by amateur growers.



    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Thrixspermum Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2012 Yong, R. [43], Sarawak K000718577
    Jan 1, 1998 Yong, R. [43] 70746.000
    Jan 1, 1998 Yong, R. [164], Malaysia 70968.000
    Mason, L.M. [1823], New Guinea 28634.000
    Collenette, S. [2334] 42413.000
    Kerr, A.D. [ADK. 1221], Laos 32321.000
    Cumberlege [529], Thailand 23892.000
    Douglas, G. [K/7], Solomon Is. 31704.000
    Lamb, A. [AL 411/85] 49333.000
    Lamb, A. [AL415/85], Sabah 72809.000
    Lamb, A. [AL412/85], Sabah 72810.000
    Lamb, A. [AL401/85], Sabah 72830.000
    Lamb, A. [AL419/85], Sabah 72831.000
    Lamb, A. [AL416/85], Sabah 72833.000
    Lamb, A. [AL413/85], Sabah 72834.000
    Lamb, A. [AL410/85], Sabah 72835.000
    Lamb, A. [AL414/85], Sabah 72836.000
    Lamb, A. [AL1521/92], Sabah 72861.000
    Lamb, A. [AL811/87], Sabah 72875.000
    Lamb, A. [AL671], Sabah 72880.000
    Lamb, A. [s.n.], Sabah 72891.000
    Lamb, A. [AL126/83], Sabah 72923.000
    Kidman Cox, J. [141], Indonesia 30883.000
    Yong, R. [43], Malaysia 77571.000

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 519 (1790)

    Accepted by

    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014). Genera Orchidacearum 6: 1-544. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


    Aeridinae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0