1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Vanilla Plum. ex Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

    Habit
    Lianes with aerial or clinging adventitious roots, rooting in the soil where the stem touches the ground.
    Leaves
    Leaves absent, or if present, sessile to shortly petiolate, fleshy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, few- to many-flowered.
    Flowers
    Flowers large; white, yellow or green, often marked with purple or yellow on the lip.
    Calyx
    Sepals and petals similar, free.
    Labellum
    Lip usually larger than the sepals and petals, adnate to column for part of its length and forming a funnel; disk variously appendaged with lamellae or hairs.
    Column
    Column elongate, curved, auriculate; anther attached to margin of clinandrium, incumbent, subglobose, operculate; stigma transverse, bifid at the apex, situated under the rostellum. Rostellum broad, membranous, articulated at the base, usually deflexed.
    Fruits
    Capsule long, cylindrical, unilocular, dehiscent; seeds black, relatively large.
    [FTEA]

    Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Scrambling, epiphytic lianes bearing adventitious roots arising at the nodes and opposite the leaves, if any
    Stem
    Stems usually terete, occasionally channelled, succulent, deep olive- or blue-green, of indefinite length, with or without leaves
    Leaves
    Leaves remote, linear to oblong-elliptical and broadly ovate, sessile or shortly petiolate, fleshy, often coriaceous, usually becoming smaller towards apex of stem, the uppermost leaves bract-like
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences racemose, occasionally branched, usually axillary, very occasionally terminal, sessile or pedunculate, few–many-flowered, often only 1 or 2 flowers fully open at one time
    Flowers
    Flowers large, subtended by bracts of various sizes, often campanulate, ranging from purest white to deep dull green, often fleshy, fugacious
    Perianth
    Sepals and petals free; petals often keeled on dorsal surface
    Labellum
    Lip usually larger than tepals, adnate to the column for various distances to form a funnel; disc variously appendaged with lamellae, laciniae, hairs or raised keels
    Column
    Column elongate, curved, auriculate; anther attached to margin of clinandrium, incumbent, subglobose, operculate; stigma transverse, often bifid at apex, situated under rostellum; rostellum broad, membranous, articulated at base, usually deflexed
    Fruits
    Capsules linear, often very long, unilocular, dehiscent; seeds relatively large, black, shining.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cook Is., Marianas, New Caledonia, Niue, Réunion, Society Is., Tonga

    Vanilla Plum. ex Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1970 Prance, G.T. [7955], Brazil K000940265
    Greenway, P.J. [EAH 13938], Tanzania 32440.000
    Chase, N.C. [4307], Zimbabwe 29047.016
    Du Puy, B. [MB386], Madagascar 72590.000
    Wong, K.M. [WKM 2656], Sabah K000395533
    Hermans, J. [21/1], Madagascar 72624.000
    Tsi, Z.H. [ASBK 37], China 60115.000
    Walter, B.M.T. [405], Brazil K000847208
    Folli, D.A. [1724], Brazil K000940267
    Dusén, P. [16125], Brazil K000940266
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7401], Malaysia K001127291
    Rombouts, H.E. [804], Suriname K000395964

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Soto Arenas, M.A. & Cribb, P. (2010). A new infrageneric classification and synopsis of the genus Vanilla Plum. ex Mill. (Orchidaceae: Vanillinae) Lankesteriana 9: 355-398.
    • Soto Arenas, M.A. & Dressler, R.L. (2010). A revision of the Mexican and Central American species of Vanilla Plumier ex Miller with a characterization of their ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA Lankesteriana 9: 283-354.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2003). Genera Orchidacearum 3: 1-358. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 7: 176.
    • Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Rolfe in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 439–478 (1896).
    • Gard. Dict., abr. ed. 4 (1754).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Rolfe in J.L.S. 32: 439–478 (1896)
    • Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0