1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Calyptrocalyx Blume

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Maluku to New Guinea.

    [PW]
    Diagnostic
    Small to moderate, solitary or clustering undergrowth palms of rain forest in the Moluccas and New Guinea, with spicate inflorescences with the peduncular bract inserted just above the prophyll at the base of the peduncle.
    Biology
    Undergrowth palms of primary rain forest occurring at elevations from sea level to ca. 1000 m in mountains, usually on montane slopes with well-drained soils, more rarely along streams or sometimes gregarious in swampy or poorly drained areas.
    Vernacular
    Not recorded.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b), and fruit (Essig 2002).
    General Description
    Solitary or more often clustering, small to moderate, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem erect, usually becoming bare, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars. Leaves undivided with bifid apices and pinnately ribbed, or pinnate, marcescent or neatly abscising, a crownshaft scarcely developed; sheaths soon splitting opposite the petiole, scaly or not, the margins usually fibrous; petiole absent, short or long, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded; lamina bifid with acute or lobed tips, or leaflets 1–several ribbed, acute, acuminate or sometimes toothed, concolorous, variously scaly or glabrous. Inflorescences solitary or multiple, interfoliar, protandrous, spicate; peduncle winged at the base, erect or pendulous, elongate; prophyll inserted at the very base, ± included within the sheaths, common to all axes where inflorescences multiple, tubular, flattened, ± 2-winged, tending to disintegrate into fibres apically; peduncular bract inserted near the peduncle base, tubular, open apically, shorter than the spike and not enclosing it, persistent or rotting on the inflorescence; spike short to elongate bearing a dense spiral of low, rounded bracts forming the lower lips of usually deep floral pits, each enclosing a triad except at the apex where enclosing paired or solitary staminate flowers, flowers exserted one at a time; floral bracteoles small, included. Staminate flowers sessile or briefly pedicellate; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, often keeled; petals 3, distinct, about twice as long as the sepals, valvate, marked within by stamen impressions; stamens 6–140, filaments elongate, linear, erect or usually inflexed at the apex in bud, distinct or, in Calyptrocalyx doxanthus, united for 3/4 their length to form a staminal tube, anthers dorsifixed, erect or versatile, mostly deeply sagittate basally, latrorse; pistillode sometimes lacking or slender and ± club-shaped, about as long as stamens. Pollen ellipsoidal, asymmetric to pyriform; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, or perforate-rugulate, aperture margin similar or slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 36–61 µm [4/27]. Pistillate flowers ± globular; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate; petals 3, distinct, exceeding the sepals, broadly imbricate except at the minutely valvate tips; staminodes (2–)3–9; gynoecium unilocular, uniovulate, ellipsoidal with apical button-like or trifid stigma, ovule hemianatropous, attached laterally above the middle of the locule. Fruit small to large, orange, bright red, pink or purplish black at maturity, perianth whorls persistent, stigmatic remains apical or slightly eccentric; epicarp smooth, fragile, glabrous or rarely pilose or with scattered scales, mesocarp fleshy or dry, white or pink, endocarp thin, closely adhering to or separating from the seed. Seed subbasally to laterally attached, hilum short to elongate, raphe branches anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology: 2n = 32.
    Distribution
    About 27 species, one widespread in the Moluccas, the remainder in New Guinea.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Maluku, New Guinea

    Calyptrocalyx Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 28, 2008 Klappa, S. [105], Papua New Guinea K000525994
    Feb 21, 2003 Heatubun, C. [CH425], New Guinea K000208596
    Sep 13, 2002 Gardner, R.D [7221], Papua New Guinea K000030639
    Dec 5, 2000 Banka, R. [2002], Papua New Guinea 62131.000
    Dec 5, 2000 Banka, R. [2002], Papua New Guinea K000114208
    Feb 26, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1064], Indonesia 62135.000
    Feb 26, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1064], Indonesia K000112781
    Feb 24, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1056], Indonesia 62137.000
    Feb 24, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1056], Indonesia K000112775
    Oct 23, 1997 Reksodihardjo, S [285], Indonesia K000112634
    Sep 19, 1996 Davis, A.P. [745], Indonesia K000030814
    Sep 19, 1996 Morren [3041], Papua New Guinea K000030823
    Feb 13, 1996 Baker, W.J. [668], Papua New Guinea K000112635
    Feb 12, 1996 Baker, W.J. [660], Papua New Guinea K000030824
    Feb 2, 1996 Baker, W.J. [620], Papua New Guinea K000112636
    Feb 2, 1996 Baker, W.J. [618], Papua New Guinea K000030843
    Jan 11, 1996 Baker, W.J. [571], Papua New Guinea K000112637
    Jul 27, 1995 Hoogland, R.D. [10998], Papua New Guinea K000112535
    Jan 1, 1982 Hoogland, R.D. [8933], Papua New Guinea K000112663
    Sep 1, 1956 Carr, C.E. [13035], Papua New Guinea K000112534
    Brass, L.J. [28454], Papua New Guinea K000112532
    Johns, R.J. [404], Papua New Guinea K000030840
    Johns, R.J. [403], Papua New Guinea K000030841
    Johns, R.J. [8134], Indonesia K000030822
    Heatubun, C. [156], Indonesia K000030819
    Heatubun, C. [177], Indonesia K000030815
    Heatubun, C. [322], Indonesia K000113567
    Heatubun, C. [342], Indonesia K000114378
    Heatubun, C. [371], Indonesia K000030703
    Heatubun, C. [382], Indonesia K000030748
    Mogea, J.P. [5530], Indonesia K000112642
    Mogea, J.P. [6236], Indonesia K000112688
    Mogea, J.P. [6232], Indonesia K000112690
    Baker, W.J. [WJB 620], Papua New Guinea 59957.000
    Baker, W.J. [WJB 668], Papua New Guinea 59958.000
    Baker, W.J. [619], Papua New Guinea 61788.000
    Pullen, R. [8292], Papua New Guinea K000112644
    Witono, J. [JK8], Indonesia K000030818
    Maturbongs, R.A. [594], Indonesia K000030821
    Maturbongs, R.A. [581], Indonesia K000030820
    Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM681], Indonesia K000114406
    Pleyte, D.R. [594], Indonesia K000112665
    Bau, B. [LAE82783], Papua New Guinea K000207910
    Furtado, C.X. [30942] K000030828
    Furtado, C.X. [31167], Indonesia K000030829
    Kjaer, A. [518], Papua New Guinea K000114334
    Mehen, S. [SM04], Indonesia K000114382
    Desianto, B. [BD15], Indonesia K000114408
    Gusbager, P. [14], Indonesia K000030692
    Gusbager, P. [15], Indonesia K000030753

    First published in Rumphia 2: 103 (1843)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0