1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Cyrtostachys Blume

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to Papuasia.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Cyrtostachys renda is exclusive to peat swamp forest, usually near the coast, where it can be a conspicuous component of the vegetation; other species may be found in lowland rain forest and at altitudes of up to about 500 m.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961) and root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b).
    Distribution
    Seven species: Cyrtostachys renda in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo, and very widely cultivated; all other species in New Guinea and Melanesia.
    General Description
    Solitary or clustered, moderate to tall, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stems erect, bare, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, often bearing a mass of adventitious roots at the base, where clustering, the clump rather close, or more rarely diffusely spreading by stolons. Leaves pinnate, neatly abscising; sheaths tubular, forming a well-defined crownshaft, brilliantly orange-red coloured in 1 species (Cyrtostachys renda), glabrous or scaly; petiole short to long, adaxially channelled or flattened, abaxially rounded or angled, glabrous or scaly; rachis like the petiole but angled adaxially; leaflets always single-fold, acute or acuminate, regularly arranged, often stiff, sometimes ascending, sometimes slightly paler beneath, ± glabrous adaxially, abaxially often with ramenta along the midvein and sometimes minutely dotted between the veins, transverse veinlets conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescence apparently protandrous, infrafoliar, highly branched to 3 orders, rather diffuse and spreading; peduncle usually very short, ± oval in cross-section; prophyll enclosing the inflorescence until leaf fall, borne just above the winged base of the peduncle, tubular, 2-keeled, ±lanceolate, with winged margins, splitting, soon caducous; peduncular bract borne just above the prophyll, completely enclosing the inflorescence, splitting longitudinally like the prophyll, caducous; subsequent bracts very inconspicuous, incomplete, low, triangular; rachis longer than the peduncle; first-order branches robust, spreading, with a short bare portion at the base, then branching to produce diverging rachillae or second-order branches; second-order branches, when not rachillae, also with short bare portion and then branching to produce rachillae; rachillae elongate, cylindrical, rather robust, glabrous, papillose, minutely roughened or indumentose, often brightly coloured, expanding long before anthesis; rachilla bracts low, triangular, spirally arranged, rather crowded, each partially enclosing a shallow pit bearing a triad of flowers, triads borne throughout the length of the rachillae; floral bracteoles membranous, very small and inconspicuous. Staminate flowers with 3, distinct, imbricate, broad, strongly keeled sepals with minutely toothed margins (?always); petals about twice as long as sepals, united at the very base to ca. 1/3 their length, globose or ellipsoidal, apically attached, the hilum orbicular, endosperm distally with 3 triangular, valvate tips; stamens 9–15, the filaments awl-homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid shaped, connate basally, apically inflexed in bud, anthers apically and basally with narrow lobes. Cytology: 2n = 32. slightly bilobed, dorsifixed, latrorse; pistillode almost as long as filaments, narrow, elongate, trifid. Pollen ellipsoidal, less frequently, oblate triangular, symmetric or slightly asymmetric; aperture a distal sulcus or trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate rugulate, in some species with verrucate or gemmate supratectal processes, aperture margin similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis 27–56 µm; post-meiotic tetrads tetrahedral [2/11]. Pistillate flowers about the same size as or slightly larger than the staminate; sepals 3, distinct, rounded, imbricate, the margins minutely toothed (?always); petals 3, slightly larger than the sepals, distinct, imbricate proximally, asymmetrical, rounded with short triangular valvate tips; staminodal ring membranous, very low, bearing short truncate or irregularly triangular teeth; gynoecium unilocular, ellipsoidal with 3 short recurved stigmas, ovule pendulous from the apex of the locule, form unknown. Fruit 1-seeded, broad to narrow-ellipsoidal, usually black, the perianth whorls persistent, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp smooth, contrasting with the rachilla, mesocarp thin, oily, with abundant longitudinal fibre bundles, endocarp thin, closely adhering to the seed.
    Diagnostic
    Solitary or clustered, moderate to very robust pinnate-leaved palms of West Malesia and New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, with conspicuous crownshafts, inflorescences with short peduncles and flowers generally borne in pits; fruits have apical stigmatic remains.
    Vernacular
    Sealing wax palm, pinang rajah (Cyrtostachys renda).
    [KBu]

    Heatubun, C.D., Baker, W.J., Mogea, J.P. et al. 2010. A monograph of Cyrtostachys (Arecaceae). Kew Bulletin 64: 67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9096-4

    Type
    C. renda Blume.
    Habit
    Solitary or clustering, moderate to robust, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms
    Stem
    Stem erect, bare, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, often bearing a mass of adventitious roots at the base, where clustering, the clump rather close, or more diffusely spreading by stolons
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnate, neatly abscising; sheath tubular, forming a well defined crownshaft, brilliantly orange-red coloured in one species (C.renda), glabrous or scaly; rachis like the petiole but angled adaxially; leaflets always single-fold, acute or acuminate or sometimes rounded with a bifid tip, regularly arranged or grouped with two leaflets in one species (C.excelsa), often stiff, sometimes slightly paler beneath, ± glabrous adaxially, abaxially often with ramenta along mid vein and sometimes minutely dotted between the veins, transverse veinlets conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescence apparently protandrous, infrafoliar, branched to 2 – 4 orders, rather diffuse and spreading; peduncle usually very short, ± oval in cross section; prophyll enclosing the inflorescence until leaf fall, borne just above the winged base of peduncle, tubular, 2-keeled, ± lanceolate, with winged margins, splitting, soon caducous; peduncular bract borne just above the prophyll, completely enclosing the inflorescence, splitting longitudinally like the prophyll, caducous; subsequent bract very inconspicuous, incomplete, low, triangular; rachis longer than the peduncle; first order branches robust, spreading, with a short bare portion at the base, then branching to produce diverging rachillae or second-order branches; second-order branches, when not rachillae, also with short bare portion and then branching to produce rachillae; rachillae elongate, cylindrical, rather robust, glabrous, papillate, minutely roughened or indumentose, sometimes brightly coloured, expanding long before anthesis; rachilla bracts low, triangular, spirally arranged, rather crowded, each partially enclosing a shallow pit bearing a triad of flowers, triads borne throughout the length of the rachillae; floral bracteoles membranous, very small and inconspicuous
    Flowers
    Staminate flowers with 3, distinct, imbricate, broad, strongly keeled sepals with minutely toothed margins; petals about twice as long as sepals, united at the base to c. ⅓ their length, distally with triangular, valvate tips; stamens 8 – 15, the filaments awl-shaped, connate basally, apically inflexed in bud, anthers dorsifixed, latrorse; pollen grains ellipsoidal, less frequently, oblate triangular, symmetric or slightly asymmetric; aperture a distal sulcus or trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, rugulate, in some species with verrucate or gemmate supratectal processes, aperture margin similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis ranging from 27 – 57 μm, shortest axis ranging from 23 – 44 μm; post-meiotic tetrads tetrahedral; pistillode almost as long as filament, narrow, elongate, trifid Pistillate flowers about same size as or slightly larger than the staminate; sepals 3, distinct, rounded, imbricate, the margins minutely toothed; petals 3, slightly larger than sepals, distinct, imbricate, proximally asymmetrical, rounded with short triangular valvate tips; staminodal ring membranous, very low, bearing short truncate or irregularly triangular teeth; gynoecium unilocular, ellipsoidal with 3 short recurved stigmas, ovule pendulous from apex of locule, form unknown
    Fruits
    Fruits 1-seeded, broad to narrow-ellipsoidal or sickle-shaped, usually black, the perianth whorls persistent, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp smooth, contrasting with rachilla, mesocarp thin, closely adhering to the seed; pericarp anatomy: combination of papillate epidermis, heavy layer of tanniniferous/pigmented cells below the epidermis, a system of vascular bundles with thick fibrous sheaths with purely fibrous bundles frequently above and below, absence of brachysclereids, and a very thin sclerified locular epidermis
    Seeds
    Seed globose or ellipsoidal, apically attached, the hilum orbicular, endosperm homogenous; embryo basal-Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid with narrow lobes. Cytology n = 16 (C.renda, Sarkar 1970).
    [PW]
    Use
    This species is a commercially important ornamental. Locally, its trunk is also used as a source of laths for supporting Nypa leaf thatch. The larger New Guinea species may supply timber.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Malaya, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Sumatera, Thailand

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Cyrtostachys Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 24, 2000 Baker, W.J. [1110], Papua New Guinea 70010.000
    Heatubun, C. [208], Indonesia 63975.000
    Heatubun, C. [194], Indonesia 63985.000

    First published in Bull. Sci. Phys. Nat. Néerl. 1: 66 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Heatubun, C.D., Baker, W.J., Mogea, J.P., Harley, M.M., Tjitrosoedirdjo, S.S. & Dransfield, J. (2009). A monograph of Cyrtostachys (Arecaceae) Kew Bulletin 64: 67-94.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0