1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Dictyocaryum H.Wendl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Panama to S. Tropical America.

    [PW]
    Morphology
    Leaf and seed (Roth 1990), and root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b).
    Vernacular
    Araque, palma real.
    Diagnostic
    Usually robust solitary or clustered pinnate-leaved tree palms of the Andes and foothills, the stems with stilt roots; leaflets are rhomboid, praemorse and are usually longitudinally divided to give the whole leaf an ostrich-feather appearance; fruit has basal stigmatic remains and embryo.
    Distribution
    Three species described in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana and Panama.
    Biology
    Usually in montane rain forest at medium elevations, on very steep slopes, often occurring in great numbers, and forming a conspicuous component of the forest canopy. Dictyocaryum ptarianum also rarely grows in the lowlands of the Amazon basin.
    General Description
    Solitary, or very rarely clustered, moderate to robust, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious tree palms. Stem erect, slightly or rarely markedly ventricose, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, with stilt roots bearing short somewhat sharp or cylindrical, lateral roots. Leaves few, pinnate, neatly abscising; sheath forming a conspicuous crownshaft, bearing scattered small scales (?always); petiole short or very short, adaxially channelled at the base, rounded or angled distally, rounded abaxially, sometimes densely tomentose; rachis angled to convex adaxially, rounded abaxially; leaflets massive with numerous ribs, longitudinally divided between the ribs to the base into narrow segments displayed in many planes giving the whole leaf a dense plumose appearance, each segment praemorse at the apex, blade strongly discolorous, abaxially green or densely covered in white indumentum and abundant unbranched hairs and/or dot-like scales, usually 1 large rib per segment, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, infrafoliar, erect or pendulous and curved, branched to 2 orders, in bud sometimes horn-shaped, protandrous; peduncle winged or not at the base, elongate, rounded in cross-section, massive; prophyll short, 2-keeled, tubular, soon opening at the tip, eventually shed, tomentose; peduncular bracts up to 9, tubular with pointed tips, completely sheathing at first, then splitting apically to allow elongation of the peduncle, proximal few rather short, middle to distal much longer, conspicuously beaked, all shed at anthesis, prophyll and peduncular bracts coriaceous to woody; rachis ± equalling to much longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts spirally arranged, triangular, proximally conspicuous; first-order branches spreading, swollen at the base with a long bare portion, the proximal bearing about 3–4 rachillae, distal unbranched; rachillae slender, elongate, flexuous, very numerous, bearing rather distant, spirally arranged triads proximally, paired and solitary staminate flowers distally. Staminate flowers fleshy, sessile, ± symmetrical; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, rounded, strongly gibbous basally; petals much longer than the sepals, 3, slightly connate at the base, ± lanceolate, valvate; stamens 6, filaments short, broad, fleshy, anthers elongate, basifixed, latrorse; pistillode short, broad, columnar, rounded or minutely trifid at the apex. Pollen ellipsoidal, ± bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine intectate, coarsely granular to gemmate, granulae/gemmae often coalesced into larger irregular units, aperture margin similar; longest axis 24–30 µm [3/3]. Pistillate flowers smaller than the staminate, sessile; sepals 3, distinct, rounded, imbricate, thick; petals ca. 3 times as long as the sepals, ± triangular, imbricate; staminodes 6, minute, strap-like or tooth-like; gynoecium tricarpellate, triovulate, rounded, tipped with 3 low stigmas, ovule probably anatropous. Fruit developing from 1 carpel, globose or ellipsoidal, with basal carpel and stigmatic remains; epicarp smooth, usually yellow at maturity, dark brown when dry, mesocarp thick with outer layer of sclereids and inner layer of tannin and fibres, endocarp very thin, scarcely differentiated. Seed spherical, basally attached, seed coat thick with a conspicuous network of raphe fibres, hilum rounded, endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology not studied.
    [PW]
    Use
    Specific uses have not been recorded.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Panamá, Peru, Venezuela

    Dictyocaryum H.Wendl. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bonplandia (Hannover) 8: 106 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0