1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Drymophloeus Zipp.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Maluku to SW. Pacific.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Understory palms in rain forest in areas of high rainfall, variously occurring from sea level to 1200 m.
    Diagnostic
    Small to moderate, solitary pinnate-leaved palms, native to Moluccas, New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands and Samoa, with crownshaft and praemorse leaflets, elongate peduncles and seed rounded in cross section; the endosperm can be ruminate or homogeneous.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b) and fruit (Essig 1977).
    General Description
    Small to moderate, solitary or rarely weakly clustering, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem erect, slender, ringed with rather widely spaced leaf scars, sometimes short stilt roots present basally. Leaves pinnate, arching slightly, few in crown; sheath rather thick, forming a slender crownshaft, glabrous adaxially, abaxially densely covered with whitish tomentum and small red-brown scales, becoming minutely brown-dotted; petiole absent or short, slender, adaxially deeply channelled, abaxially rounded, covered with deciduous tomentum and pale or dark scales; rachis long, slender, adaxially often sharply pointed or ridged and rounded, abaxially rounded, densely covered with brown tattered scales or tomentum; leaflets subopposite to alternate, in one plane, single-fold, broadly or narrowly wedge-shaped, or broadly lanceolate to narrowly obovate, distal pair sometimes broader and united or small and narrow, leaflets distally variously lobed or oblique, raggedly praemorse, adaxially glabrous except for a few scales near bases of major veins, abaxially densely covered with small scales on minor veins, major veins with ramenta toward the base, or lacking scales except on midrib, midvein and a pair of large veins along or close to the margins prominent, margins densely covered with caducous tomentum and scales, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences infrafoliar, branched to 1 or basally to 2–3 orders, protandrous; peduncle relatively slender, elongate (except Drymophloeus subdistichus), elliptical in cross-section; prophyll deciduous, tubular, slender, dorsiventally flattened, with 2, narrow, lateral keels, pointed, splitting apically and for a short distance abaxially to release the peduncular bract, densely covered with multibranched or pale-margined brown scales; peduncular bract tubular, slender, much longer than the prophyll, with a long rather flat, pointed tip, densely covered with scales like the prophyll, a few small incomplete peduncular bracts sometimes also present; rachis shorter than the peduncle, angled, tapering, bearing rather few, distant, spirally arranged branches; rachis bracts low, rounded; rachillae short, tapering, bearing spirally arranged triads of flowers basally, and pairs of a pistillate and one staminate, or a single staminate flower distally; floral bracteoles low, rounded or truncate. Staminate flowers borne laterally toward the lower side of the pistillate flower in rounded indentations in the rachillae; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, irregularly but strongly keeled, margins thin, variously notched; petals 3, distinct, ovate, valvate, evenly thickened, adaxially grooved, reflexed at anthesis; stamens numerous, 24 to more than 320, filaments moderate, awl-shaped, anthers elongate, sagittate basally, uneven, sometimes divided apically, medifixed, versatile, latrorse; pistillode with 3 short, rounded, 3-angled lobes or ovoid attenuate to 2/3 as long as the stamens, usually shortly trifid apically. Pollen ellipsoidal or oblate triangular, asymmetric to pyriform; aperture a distal sulcus or trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate or perforate-reticulate, aperture margin similar or slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis ranging from 50–63 µm [2/7]. Pistillate flowers broadly ovoid; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, hooded, edges minutely toothed or variously notched; petals 3, twice as long as the sepals in late bud, distinct, ovate, imbricate, lateral margins shortly fringed, tips thick, valvate; staminodes 3, shortly joined basally, wide, truncate and bifid or uneven distally; gynoecium symmetrical, ovoid, tapering distally, unilocular, uniovulate, stigmas 3, recurved, ovule attached laterally or pendulous from the top of the locule, form unknown. Fruit fusiform to ovoid, red at maturity, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp thin, smooth, becoming pebbled when dry, mesocarp fleshy, fibrous, with stinging crystals, fibres adherent to the thin, rather smooth endocarp, endocarp usually circular in cross-section, 5-lobed in D. hentyi and D. subdistichus). Seed ovoid, surface smooth, hilum apical, raphe much branched, branches somewhat sunken, endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid, or entire, ovate, margins toothed. Cytology: 2n = 32.
    Distribution
    Eight species extending from the Moluccas and New Guinea, through the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands to Samoa.
    Vernacular
    Common names not recorded.
    [PW]
    Use
    The black wood of the trunk is used for making spears, arrowheads, and other items. Some species are grown as ornamentals in moist tropical areas.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Maluku, New Guinea, Samoa

    Drymophloeus Zipp. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 27, 1997 Heatubun, C. [2], Indonesia K000520148
    Mogea, J.P. [6251], Indonesia K000112681
    Mogea, J.P. [6220], Indonesia K000112677
    Maturbongs, R.A. [559], Indonesia K000112709
    Maturbongs, R.A. [560], Indonesia K000113773
    Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM686], Indonesia K000114347
    Christophersen [2897], Samoa K000030103
    Christophersen [942], Samoa K000030100
    Christophersen [940], Samoa K000030101
    Christophersen [941], Samoa K000030102

    First published in Alg. Konst- Lett.-Bode 1: 297 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0