1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Dypsis Noronha ex Mart.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania (Pemba), Comoros, Madagascar.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    For local names and uses see Dransfield and Beentje (1995b).
    Distribution
    Approximately 140 species confined to Madagascar, the Comores and the island of Pemba off the coast of Tanzania. At least 20 more are currently undescribed.
    Biology
    The genus displays an extraordinary range of ecological adaptations, occurring from sea level to over 2200 min the mountains, from rain forest to forest transitional with spiny xeromorphic scrub. Many species are palms of the forest canopy whereas others are among the smallest of all palms. Dypsis crinita is a rheophyte, at least as a juvenile, while D.aquatilis grows in relatively deep water, paralleling the remarkable Ravenea musicalis that grows in a nearby river system.
    General Description
    Very small to very large unarmed pleonanthic monoecious palms. Stems solitary or clustered, very short, subterranean, creeping-rhizomatous, erect, in one species climbing, sometimes branched aerially by apparent dichotomy. Leaves pinnate or pinnately ribbed, neatly abscising or marcescent; sheath tubular, rarely almost open, usually forming a well-defined crownshaft, sometimes fibrous, in a few species with abundant pendulous piassava, sheath surface variously scaly and/or waxy or glabrous, auricles sometimes present; petiole absent or short to long, variously glabrous, scaly or hairy; blade entire, entire-bifid, or divided into single or multi-fold reduplicate leaflets, regularly or irregularly arranged, sometimes fanned within groups to produce a plumose appearance, leaflets usually entire, rarely praemorse, very rarely discolourous, often with abundant minute punctiform scales on both surfaces and ramenta along the main rib abaxially. Inflorescences mostly interfoliar, more rarely infrafoliar, spicate or branched to 1–4 orders, apparently protrandrous (?always); peduncle usually elongate, basal branches not sharply divaricate; prophyll often borne above the base of the peduncle; peduncular bract usually conspicuous, exserted and caducous; rachillae variously glabrous or scaly and hairy; rachilla bracts low, generally inconspicuous, sometimes conspicuous; flowers borne in triads of a central pistillate flower and two lateral staminate flowers, triads superficial or slightly sunken in shallow pits. Staminate flowers symmetrical, ± rounded to bullet-shaped, sometimes very small; sepals imbricate; petals valvate, basally briefly connate; stamens 3 (antesepalous or antepetalous) or 6 (very rarely 1, 4 or 5 as monstrosities), 3 staminodes sometimes present, these either antesepalous or antepetalous, very rarely adnate to the pistillode; pistillode present or absent. Pollen ellipsoidal, elongate ellipsoidal, pyriform or oblate triangular, with slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture usually a distal sulcus, occasionally a trichotomosulcus; ectexine usually tectate, occasionally semi-tectate, perforate, perforate and micro-channelled, perforate-rugulate, reticulate,muri of reticulum occasionally coarsely granular (rarely granularcrotonoid) or spinulose, aperture margin similar or slightly finer;infratectum columellate; less frequently ectexine intectate with coarselygranular structures, sometimes coalesced into larger elements with orwithout spinulae, aperture margin similar; longest axis 17–65 µm; post-meiotic tetrads usually tetrahedral, rarely tetragonal or rhomboidal[30/140]. Pistillate flowers about the same size as the staminate; sepalsrounded, broadly imbricate; petals imbricate with triangular valvate tips;staminodes usually present, minute, tooth-like, usually 3 or 6 at one sideof the ovary; pistil pseudomonomerous, often strongly asymmetrical(especially in smaller species), stigmas 3, apical, sometimes eccentric,ovule form unknown. Fruit borne with persistent calyx and corolla,spherical, ellipsoid, fusiform or rarely curved, stigmatic remains basal,often obscured by perianth; epicarp often brightly coloured or jet blackor rarely dull green or brown; mesocarp thin, fleshy or fibrous; endocarpusually thin, fibrous. Seed closely adhering to the endocarp, endospermhomogeneous, sometimes deeply pentrated by regular grooves, orweakly to strongly ruminate; embryo subbasal. Germination adjacentligular; eophyll bifid or pinnate. Cytology: 2n = 32, 34.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Achilli 1913, Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b) and floral (Rudall et al. 2003).
    Diagnostic
    A complex and highly variable genus of pinnate-leaved palms that has radiated spectacularly in Madagascar and Comores, with an outlier on Pemba off the coast of Tanzania; the genus includes towering forest giants, bottle palms, litter-trappers, stemless palms, some of the most slender of all palms, and even two climbing members; all have fruit with basal stigmatic remains.
    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Solitary or clustered, moderate, unarmed, occasionally aerially branching, reduplicately pinnate, pleonanthic, monoecious palms, with or without well-defined crown-shafts
    Leaves
    Leaves sometimes in 3 ranks, neatly abscissing, leaving conspicuous leaf-scars; leaflets numerous, often curved, single-fold
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences bisexual, interfoliar or in-frafoliar, branching to 3–4 orders, bearing a prophyll and 1 peduncular bract; flowers borne in triads, a central ♀ and two lateral ♂
    Male
    Male flowers symmetrical; sepals 3, free, imbricate; petals 3, free, valvate; stamens 6, anthers ± versatile; pistillode conical to columnar
    Flowers
    Female flowers eventually larger than the ♂; sepals 3, free, imbricate; petals 3, free, imbricate; pistil with stigmas 3, closely adpressed in bud, spreading at anthesis, and 1 locule with 1 ovule Male flowers symmetrical; sepals 3, free, imbricate; petals 3, free, valvate; stamens 6, anthers ± versatile; pistillode conical to columnar
    Female
    Female flowers eventually larger than the ♂; sepals 3, free, imbricate; petals 3, free, imbricate; pistil with stigmas 3, closely adpressed in bud, spreading at anthesis, and 1 locule with 1 ovule
    Fruits
    Fruit usually ellipsoidal, drupaceous, generally rather small, with stigmatic remains at one side near the base; epicarp smooth; outer mesocarp thin, fleshy; inner mesocarp reticulate fibrous; endocarp very thin
    Seeds
    Germination adjacent-ligular; seedling leaf bifid. Seed basally attached, slightly grooved longitudinally; endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral or sub-basal
    [PW]
    Use
    For local names and uses see Dransfield and Beentje (1995b).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Comoros, Madagascar, Tanzania

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles

    Dypsis Noronha ex Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 10, 2008 Beentje, H. [4479], Madagascar K000526443
    Jul 1, 2008 Rakotoarinivo, M. [RMJ201], Madagascar K000526476
    Aug 17, 2007 Callmander, M. [589], Madagascar K000462891
    Jul 6, 2006 Razafitsalama, J.L. [557], Madagascar K000208397
    Jul 5, 2006 Britt, A. [AB57], Madagascar K000208438
    Jan 1, 2005 Rakotoarinivo, M. [RMJ172], Madagascar K000209544
    Oct 14, 2002 Birkinshaw, C. [404], Madagascar K000030596
    Jan 1, 1997 Labat, J.N. [2915], Madagascar K000462736
    Jan 1, 1995 Dransfield, J. [JD6388], Madagascar K000462742
    Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H. [4484], Madagascar K000462734
    Jan 1, 1995 Beentje, H. [4483], Madagascar K000462738
    Jan 1, 1995 Humbert, H. [31737], Madagascar K000462740
    Jan 1, 1995 Curtis [117], Madagascar K000462745
    Jan 1, 1995 Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000462421
    Jan 1, 1995 Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000462422
    Jan 1, 1995 Parker, G.W. [s.n.], Madagascar K000462423
    Jan 1, 1995 Anonymous [s.n.] K000462741
    Jan 1, 1995 Rabevohitra, R. [1918], Madagascar K000462733
    Jan 1, 1995 Cours, G. [3831], Madagascar K000462739
    Madagascar 56380.000
    Moore, H.E. [9968], Madagascar 48264.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD6423], Madagascar 51605.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD 7727], Madagascar 61925.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD 7726], Madagascar 61926.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD 7740], Madagascar 64014.000
    Dransfield, J. [JD 7743], Madagascar 64088.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB150], Madagascar 57372.000
    Rafamantanantsoa, G. [OUEM6], Madagascar K000462743
    Dransfield, J. [JD7629], Madagascar K000462732
    Dransfield, J. [JD7630], Madagascar K000525803
    Dransfield, J. [JD7635], Madagascar K000462744
    Dransfield, J. [JD7639], Madagascar K000462731
    Dransfield, J. [JD7745], Madagascar K000462746
    Rafamantantsoa, G. [OUEM 6], Madagascar 75528.000
    Curtis [s.n.], Madagascar K000462424
    Baker, W.J. [1013], Madagascar 64089.000
    Britt, A. [AB203], Madagascar K000209558
    Britt, A. [AB207], Madagascar K000209562
    Byg, A. [4], Madagascar K000462737
    Guillery, R.P. [s.n.], Madagascar K000462735
    Gautier [4220], Madagascar K000208183
    Rakotoarinivo, M. [RMJ254], Madagascar K000462724
    Ranirison, P. [PR814], Madagascar K000208468
    Ranirison, P. [PR589], Madagascar K000208474
    Ranirison, P. [PR492], Madagascar K000208478
    Ranirison, P. [PR884], Madagascar K000208482

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 180 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0