1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Johannesteijsmannia H.E.Moore

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Daun payung.
    Biology
    These magnificent palms are plants of the undergrowth of primary rain forest, and seem very intolerant of disturbance; in Sarawak Johannesteijsmannia altifrons appears confined to some facies of ‘kerangas’ (heath forest); elsewhere, it seems less restricted but avoids wet valley bottom soils. Johannesteijsmannia magnifica and J. lanceolata are plants of hillslopes and J. perakensis is a plant ofhillslopes and ridgetops. The distribution is remarkably disjunct,species being absent from apparently suitable forest.
    General Description
    Moderate, solitary, armed, acaulescent or short-trunked, pleonanthic, hermaphroditic palms. Stem very short, decumbent, or erect, ringed with close leaf scars. Leaves large, entire, diamond-shaped, subpinnately ribbed, marcescent; sheath tubular at first, later drying and disintegrating into an interwoven mass of fibres; petiole well developed, ± triangular in cross-section, adaxially flattened, armed along the margins with small, sharp teeth, caducous tomentum present on very young petioles; adaxial hastula present on developing leaves, oblique, disappearing before leaf expansion; costa extending almost to the leaf apex, more prominent abaxially than adaxially; blade subpinnately ribbed, glabrous or the abaxial surface densely covered with white indumentum, lower margins thickened, armed with teeth like the petiole, the upper margins alternately notched, notches short along abaxial ribs, long along adaxial ribs, giving margins an irregularly stepped appearance, and perhaps representing highly reduced induplicate leaflets, midrib raised abaxially, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescences interfoliar, short, usually partly obscured by leaf litter, branching to 1–5 orders; peduncle well developed, usually curved, tomentose; prophyll tubular, ± inflated, 2-keeled, usually densely tomentose; peduncular bracts conspicuous, up to 7 in number, cream at first, later cinnamon-brown, tubular, ± inflated, distichous in origin but all and the prophyll splitting along the side nearest the ground, allowing the inflorescence to curve; rachis shorter than the peduncle, the branches subtended by minute triangular bracts, the branches tending to form a condensed mass; rachillae 3–6, very thick, or very numerous and slender, glabrous or tomentose, bearing spirally arranged, minute, apiculate bracts subtending flowers, the flowers solitary or in groups of 2–4 arranged in a cincinnus with minute bracteoles, on a short tubercle, or ± sessile. Flowers cream-coloured, strongly scented; calyx cup-shaped with 3 low, glabrous, triangular lobes; corolla divided to 2/3 or almost to the base into 3 thin or very thick, fleshy, triangular, glabrous, sometimes densely papillose, valvate lobes; stamens 6, epipetalous, filaments very broad, fleshy, angled, connate basally to form an androecial ring, abruptedly narrowed to short, very slender, distinct tips, anthers minute, rounded, introrse; gynoecium tricarpellate, the carpels distinct at the base, united by their tips in a common slender elongate style, stigma dot-like, ovule basally attached, anatropous. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric or slightly asymmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, scabrate, finely perforate, or perforate; aperture margin similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis 20–32 µm [4/4]. Fruit rounded, usually developing from 1 carpel, but sometimes 2 or 3 carpels developing, the fruit then 2 or 3-lobed; epidermis of fruit dying early in development, the mesocarp then cracking to produce thick, corky, pyramidal warts at maturity, chestnut brown in colour, endocarp moderately thick, crustaceous. Seed basally attached, endosperm homogeneous, but penetrated by a convoluted mass of seed coat at the base; embryo lateral. Germination remote-tubular; eophyll simple, plicate, minutely dentate at the tip. Cytology: 2n = 34.
    Diagnostic
    Spectacular stemless or short-stemmed hermaphroditic palms of the forest undergrowth in South Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, instantly recognisable by the large diamond-shaped undivided leaf; fruits are corky warted.
    Morphology
    Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), roots (Seubert 1997),floral (Morrow 1965).
    Distribution
    Four species, one widespread but very local in south Thailand, West Malaysia, Sumatra, and the western part of Borneo, the other three endemic to West Malaysia, where they are also very local.
    [PW]
    Use
    Leaves are used for thatch and shelters.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand

    Johannesteijsmannia H.E.Moore appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Principes 5: 116 (1961)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0