1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Jubaeopsis Becc.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is S. Africa.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Pondoland palm.
    Distribution
    One species confined to the coastal reaches of two rivers in South Africa.
    Biology
    Jubaeopsis caffra grows gregariously on the steep north, rocky banks of the rivers, near sea-level.
    Diagnostic
    Clustering palm with short erect stems that frequently branch dichotomously, native to southeastern South Africa, staminate flowers with 7–16 stamens.
    Morphology
    Root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b). See Robertson (1976a) for anatomy and development of fruit and seed.
    General Description
    Moderate, clustered, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palm. Stems erect, branching at the base and also aerially by forking, bearing leaf sheath remains distally, eventually becoming bare, marked with close leaf scars. Leaves pinnate, arranged in 5 vertical rows, marcescent or neatly abscising; sheaths tubular, soon disintegrating into an interwoven mass of fibres; apparent petiole short to elongate, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded, glabrous, the margins bearing the remains of leaf sheath fibres, or becoming smooth; rachis ± straight or curved, adaxially channelled near the base, angled distally, abaxially rounded or flattened; leaflets numerous, single-fold, close, regularly arranged, except at the very tip, stiff, held in one plane, linear, the tips mostly asymmetrically 2-lobed, except at the leaf tip where acute or sometimes hooked, thinly glaucous, adaxial surface bearing scattered, minute, dot-like scales, abaxially with scattered dot-like scales, and a few large brown ramenta along the main vein, transverse veinlets conspicuous, sinuous. Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar, branching to 1 order, shorter than the leaves, protandrous; peduncle elongate, round in cross-section; prophyll short, tubular, 2-keeled, enclosed within the leaf sheaths, splitting apically; peduncular bract inserted near the prophyll, tubular and entirely enclosing the inflorescence until shortly before anthesis, later splitting longitudinally along the abaxial face and expanding, becoming cowl-like, woody, smooth, abaxially somewhat striate but not grooved, apically with a short, laterally flattened beak; rachis usually shorter than the peduncle, bearing numerous, spirally arranged, rather distant, spreading rachillae, each subtended by a low triangular bract; rachillae elongate, swollen at the very base and with a short or long basal bare portion, above which bearing few to numerous spirally arranged triads, Distribution of Jubaeopsis distally bearing paired or solitary staminate flowers; rachilla bracts and floral bracteoles small, inconspicuous. Staminate flowers rather large, perforate and micro-channelled, or perforate-rugulate, aperture margin asymmetrical, sessile; sepals 3, distinct, unequal, imbricate, ± triangular, similar; infratectum columellate; longest axis 63–81 µm [1/1]. Pistillate keeled; petals 3, distinct, very unequal, much larger than the sepals, flowers ovoid, only slightly larger than the staminate; sepals 3, distinct, boat-shaped with triangular tips, valvate; stamens (7–)8–16, filaments broad, rounded, with pointed tips, imbricate, somewhat irregularly slender, fleshy, ± cylindrical, apically inflexed, anthers linear, basally keeled; petals 3, distinct, ± twice as long as the sepals, broad, rounded, sagittate, dorsifixed, introrse; pistillode small, irregularly trifid. Pollen imbricate except at the short valvate triangular tips; staminodal ring ellipsoidal, frequently elongate, usually with either slight or obvious collar-like, very briefly toothed or consisting of several irregular tooth-asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely perforate, like lobes; gynoecium ± ovoid, trilocular, triovulate, stigmas 3, very short, ± triangular, ovules hemianatropous, laterally attached. Fruit 1-seeded, brown at maturity, globose with a short apical beak, stigmatic remains apical; epicarp smooth, mesocarp thin, fibrous, only slightly fleshy, easily separated from the endocarp at maturity, endocarp thick, bony, with 3 vertical grooves, the pores lateral just below the equator. Seed basally attached, somewhat irregular in shape, endosperm homogeneous with a large central cavity; embryo lateral, next to one of the endocarp pores. Germination remote tubular; eophyll entire, lanceolate. Cytology: 2n = 160–200.
    [PW]
    Use
    The endosperm may be eaten. Because of its rarity, Jubaeopsis caffra is sought after as a collector’s item.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal

    Jubaeopsis Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Webbia 4: 171 (1913)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0