1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Laccosperma (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) Drude

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is W. & W. Central Tropical Africa.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Clustered, spiny, high-climbing, hapaxanthic, hermaphroditic, rattan palms. Stem sometimes branching aerially, eventually becoming bare, with long internodes, circular in cross-section, sucker shoots apparently axillary. Leaf pinnate with a cirrus; sheath strictly tubular, variously armed with scattered spines and abundant caducous indumentum; ocrea conspicuous, split opposite the leaf, scarcely sheathing, sometimes slightly inflated with inrolled edges and ant-infested, unarmed or armed like the sheath; knee absent; petiole present, usually armed with scattered or grouped spines abaxially and along margins, and frequently indumentose, rarely unarmed; rachis armed like the petiole; cirrus armed with reflexed spines and bearing neat pairs of reflexed acanthophylls; leaflets few to very numerous, 1–4-fold, entire, linear to sigmoid, regularly or irregularly arranged, often fiercely armed with short spines along the margins and the main ribs, midribs prominent adaxially, transverse veinlets conspicuous or inconspicuous. Inflorescences produced simultaneously in the axils of the most distal few frequently reduced leaves, branched to 1 order; peduncle enclosed within the leaf sheath and emerging from its mouth or bursting through the sheath, not adnate to the internode, ± hemispherical in cross-section; prophyll strictly tubular, 2-keeled, enclosed within the leaf sheath; peduncular bracts 1–3; rachis longer than the peduncle; rachis bracts distichous, strictly tubular with a triangular limb, without spines, sparsely indumentose, becoming tattered, each subtending a pendulous or spreading rachilla; rachilla prophyll tubular, 2-keeled, included within the subtending bract, rachilla bracts distichous, tubular with apiculate, triangular limb, striate, sparsely indumentose, the margin sometimes ciliate, each, except sometimes for the basal 1–2, subtending a flower cluster. Flowers very rarely borne in triads, usually in dyads, sometimes solitary towards the tips of the rachillae, the flower cluster bearing a tubular 2-keeled prophyll and 0, 1, or 2, 2-keeled bracteoles (depending on the number of flowers); calyx slightly to strongly stalk-like at the base, often bent at right angles, incompletely divided distally into 3 triangular striate lobes; corolla tubular at the very base, divided above into 3 oblong, narrow, triangular, valvate lobes; stamens 6, borne at the very base of the corolla, filaments distinct, much swollen, angular, scarcely narrowed at the connective, anthers medifixed, oblong, latrorse; gynoecium tricarpellate, triovulate, ovary covered with scales, those at the base of the style minute, spine-like, style elongate, 3-angled, stigma minute, pyramidal, ovules basally attached, anatropous. Pollen ellipsoidal, bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely to coarsely perforate, or rugulate-reticulate, aperture margin finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 37–75 µm [4/5]. Fruit 1-seeded (?always), tipped with the base of the style, the rest of the style usually breaking off early in fruit development, the perianth whorls persistent; epicarp covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales with fringed margins, mesocarp fleshy and sweet at maturity, endocarp not differentiated. Seed attached subbasally at one side, ovoid and laterally flattened, or rounded and deeply scalloped, with a very shallow to very deep lateral pit, seed coat apparently sometimes fleshy, endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral, opposite the pit. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology not studied. Clustered, spiny, understorey to high climbing, hapaxanthic, hermaphroditic rattan palms. Stems, circular in cross section, rarely oval, with medium to long internodes; sucker shoots axillary. Leaf pinnate, with cirrus; sheath strictly tubular, sparsely to profusely armed with fine scattered spines, sometimes becoming bare; ocrea conspicuous, split opposite the petiole, scarcely sheathing, rarely inflated with inrolled edges or reflexed and tattering, armed as the sheath; knee absent; petiole short to long, much shorter in the reduced leaves subtending the inflorescences, usually armed with inequidistant angular spines along margins, never unarmed; rachis armed as the petiole; cirrus armed with reflexed prickle-like spines and bearing neat pairs of reflexed acanthophylls; leaflets few to very numerous, 1-4 fold, entire, linear to sigmoid, regularly or irregularly arranged, often fiercely armed with short to long spines along the margins and the main ribs, midribs prominent adaxially, transverse veinlets conspicuous or inconspicuous; acanthophylls alternate proximally, sub-opposite to opposite distally. Inflorescences produced simultaneously in the axils of the most distal few, frequently reduced leaves, branched to 1-order; peduncle enclosed within the leaf sheath and emerging from its mouth, ± hemispherical in cross section; prophyll strictly tubular, 2-keeled, enclosed within the subtending leaf sheath; peduncular bracts 1-3; rachis longer than the peduncle; rachis bract distichous, strictly tubular with a triangular limb, without spines, sparsely to profusely indumentose, becoming tattered at apex, each subtending a pendulous or spreading rachilla; rachilla prophyll tubular, 2-keeled, included within the subtending bract, rachilla bracts distichous, tubular with apiculate triangular limb, striate, sparsely indumentose, the margin sometime ciliate, each, except for the basal 1-2, subtending a flower cluster. Flowers usually in dyads, rarely in triads, sometimes solitary towards the tip of the rachillae, the flower cluster bearing a 2-keeled prophyll and 0, 1 or 2, 2-keeled bracteoles (depending on the number of flowers); calyx slightly to strongly stalk-like at the base, often bent at right angles, incompletely divided distally into 3-triangular striate lobes; corolla tubular at the very base, divided above into 3 oblong , narrow, triangular, valvate lobes; stamens 6, epipetalous, filaments distinct, much swollen, angular, scarcely narrowed at the connective; anthers medifixed, oblong, latrorse, pollen elliptic, monosulcate with finely reticulate, tectate exine; gynoecium tricarpellate, triovulate, ovary covered with scales, those at the base of the style minute, spine-like, style elongate, 3-angled, stigma minute, pyramidal, ovules basally attached, anatropous. Fruit baccate, 1-sometimes 2-seeded, tipped with the base of the style, the remainder of the style usually breaking off in early fruit development, calyx and corolla persistent at base; epicarp covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales with fringed margins, mesocarp white, fleshy and sweet at maturity, endocarp not differentiated. Seed attached sub-basally at one side, ovoid and laterally flattened, or rounded and deeply scalloped, with a very shallow to deep, lateral pit, seed coat fleshy, endosperm homogenous; embryo lateral, opposite the depression or pit. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid.
    Morphology
    Leaf, stem, root (Tomlinson 1961).
    Diagnostic
    Clustering high-climbing pinnate-leaved rattan palms of Equatorial West Africa; sheaths densely armed; hapaxanthic and hermaphroditic, the flowers are borne in pairs, with leathery perianths but not inflated.
    Vernacular
    Common names numerous and varied throughout the area of occurrence (Sunderland 2001).
    Biology
    Apparently most abundant in rain forest on swampy soils.
    Distribution
    Five species confined to humid rain forest of West Africa and the Congo Basin. The genus Laccosperma is represented by six species which occur throughout the lowland forest region of West and Central Africa. The species are shade tolerant and are present as slender climbers under the forest canopy, whilst other species are strongly light demanding and are a common component of gaps and forest margins.
    [FTEA]

    Palmae, John Dransfield. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Slender to robust, spiny, climbing, hapaxanthic, hermaphrodite palms
    Stem
    Stems suckering sympodially
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths variously armed with spines and covered with caducous indumentum
    Ocrea
    Ocrea well developed, papyraceous, tattering with age, densely spiny and sometimes ant-filled
    Leaves
    Leaf moderate to large, terminating in a cirrus armed with reflexed spines and pairs of acanthophylls; petiole usually present; rachis densely armed with recurved spines; leaflets numerous, elongate, linear-lanceolate, equidistant, or few, sigmoid, pluricostulate and inequidistant, usually armed with spines on the margins and sometimes on the ribs, the tips entire
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences crowded in the axils of the uppermost leaves, the peduncle enclosed within the subtending leaf sheath; prophyll 2-keeled and empty; subsequent bracts tubular, with triangular limbs, approximate, each subtending a rachilla; rachillae pendulous or spreading, bearing a basal empty 2-keeled prophyll and approximate tubular bracts each subtending a flower group of 2 flowers; flower group with one minute 2-keeled prophyll and 2 minute bracteoles
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite; calyx tubular, with 3 triangular lobes; corolla with 3, free, valvate petals spreading at anthesis; stamens 6, minutely epipetalous, united at their very bases to form a short staminal ring; anthers basifixed, elongate; ovary covered with reflexed scales and tipped with elongate minutely 3-lobed stigma; ovules 3
    Fruits
    Fruit covered in vertical rows of reflexed scales; calyx and corolla persistent at the base
    Seeds
    Seed usually 1, variously pitted, with a thin testa; endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral.
    [PW]
    Use
    Stems are used as a source of cane.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Benin, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zaïre

    Laccosperma (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) Drude appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 8, 1995 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1707], Cameroon 64214.000
    Harris, D.J. [2469], Cameroon 63056.000
    Sunderland, T.C.H. [1708], Cameroon 62145.000
    Sunderland, T.C.H. [2048], Cameroon 64052.000
    Sunderland, T.C.H. [1926], Cameroon 64054.000
    Sunderland, T.C.H. [1882], Cameroon 64230.000
    Sunderland, T.C.H. [1737], Cameroon K000522393
    Deighton, J.C. [2593], Sierra Leone K000522455
    Deighton, J.C. [2593], Sierra Leone K000522456
    Soyeaux [155], Gabon K000522457

    First published in Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 35: 635 (1877)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012
    • J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J. Dransf. in K.B. 37: 455 (1982)
    • O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 729 (1891)
    • in Bot. Zeit. 35: 632, 635 (1877)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0