Skip to main content

This species is accepted, and its native range is Texas to Central America, Caribbean. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.; Andes.
Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Habit
Plant up to at least 1 m tall but often much smaller, glabrescent
Petiole
Petiole c. 1–5.5 cm long; leaf-blade ± broadly ovate, 5–17 x 3–14 cm, asymmetrically cuneate at the base, acuminate at the apex, with irregularly and coarsely dentate margins
Calyx
Calyx 2.5–5 cm long
Corolla
Corolla white, 4.5–10.5 cm long, lobes mucronate at the apex
Anthers
Anthers 3–4 mm long
Fruits
Capsules erect, globose or ovoid, 2–4 x 1.5–3.5 cm, densely prickly and minutely pubescent between the prickles, dehiscent by 4 equal valves
Seeds
Seeds black, c. 3–4 mm long.
Distribution
N1, 2; S1 native to North America, now widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions.
Ecology
Altitude range 150–1500 m.
Vernacular
Adura medu, booc madow (Somali)

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “in America nunc vulgaris per Europam”, Herb. Hort. Clifford 55, Datura 1 (BM!, lecto. designated by D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 624 (1973)). [See Hadkins et al. (1997) for problems associated with selection of lectotype & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 476 (2007)]
Habit
Annual herbs up to 2(–4) m high, occasionally undershrubs, erect or spreading, sometimes unpleasantly aromatic.
Branches
Branches light green, brownish, yellow or purplish, smooth, occasionally hollow, glabrescent to pilose with multicellular hairs
Leaves
Leaves alternate, often dark green, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or rhomboidal, (5–)8.6–15(–17) × 4.5–13(–15) cm, bases obliquely cuneate to cordate, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–6 deep acute lobes which often lacerate, apices acute to acute/acuminate, glabrescent to moderately pilose; petioles 2.2–7 cm long. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect; pedicels (3–)4–10 mm and erect in flower, elongating to 8–15(–25) mm in fruit
Calyx
Calyx cylindrical, (26–)30–45(–50) × 6–8 mm, sparsely pilose externally, lobes broadly to narrowly triangular, 3–10 × 1.5–6 mm, apices acute, margins pilose, base circumsessile forming a ridged collar or flange 3.5–8 mm diameter and 1.5–5 mm broad
Corolla
Corolla greenish, yellow, cream, white, pale or dull purple with prominent veins, tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpet-shaped above, 6–8.2(–9) cm long, glabrescent externally; tube long and slender, with 5 terminal acuminate to caudate teeth or tails 1.3–8 × 0.5–2 mm at base
Stamens
Stamens occasionally visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 2–3 cm; anthers oblong, yellow, yellow with purple margins or purplish, (2.5–)4–7 mm long
Ovary
Ovary dark brown, softly spinose, (2.5–)3–7 × 2.8–6 mm; style dark brown, (3.8–)4.2–6 cm long; stigma clavate, 1.5–3 mm long
Fruits
Fruit longitudinally ovoid usually spinous capsules, green yellowish or brownish, 2.5–5 × 1.8–4 cm (including spines), dehiscing by 4 valves splitting from the apex and reflexing to expose seeds; valves usually covered with acicular and sharply pointed unequal spines, 7–15 × 0.5–1.8 mm basally, smooth and glabrous but shortly pilose near base, occasionally valves smooth (but not in Flora area); subtended by the persistent remains of the calyx 6–18 × 4–8 mm, usually reflexed to the pedicel; fruiting pedicels elongated, stout, erect
Seeds
Seeds black or dark(rarely pale)-brown, reniform, occasionally discoid, 2.5–3.5 × 2.2–3.5 mm, not ridged, minutely and densely punctate, with distinct yellow or whitish elaisome
Figures
Fig 8/1–5, p 41
Ecology
A common weed of disturbed ground, waste places, gardens and plantations, in pastures, arable land, woodland and forest fringes; 550–2400 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
With regard to D. wallichii, there are 2 specimens labelled 2637 in K-WALL; specimen a) was collected in Nepal and b) from Bihar in northern India. Both seem good examples of D. stramonium and are presumably isosyntypes; a third specimen labelled 2639c in the Kew General Herbarium is also a good specimen of this species. Though typically characterised by spiny capsules, a number of variants with smooth capsules occur and some of these have been formally recognised. Safford (1921) reported this to be a variable character, and that both spiny and smooth capsules could be found on the same plant with the gene for prickles being dominant. As implied by its epithet, D. inermis is such a smooth-capsuled variant; all other features of this species described or illustrated on Jacquin’s plate imply that it is conspecific with D. stramonium. Smooth capsules are not thought to occur in the Floral area. Commonly known as Jimson- or Jamestown- weed, D. stramonium has been reported as a contaminant of some 40 different commercial crops in around 100 countries (cf. Hunziker, 2001), with its seeds becoming a toxic contaminant of many seed and grain harvests. All parts of the plant are rich in tropane alkaloids for which species is an important commercial source; they include hyoscyamine, hyoscine and atropine. This species is also the source of the drug stramonium and is now widely used medicinally in the Old World. Its poisonous qualities are well-known and are summarised by Verdcourt & Trump (1969).  Local populations are said to use it to induce drugged sleep, and to make intoxicant beer ( T 3); it is reported to be lethal to cattle and goats ( K 1) and is particularly dangerous when the plant occurs as a weed of crops such as wheat and maize when the seed can contaminate the resultant flour (cf. K 3). The seeds are also used to drive soldier ants away from native houses ( T 3), presumably through the beneficial mutualism existing between the seed elaisomes which attract the harvester ants responsible for their dispersal (Hunziker 2001).
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Probably native to Mexico, now a pantropical weed

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Pedicel
Pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout
Ovary
Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular.
Style
Style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous
Note
Common name: “Thorn Apple”. Cultivated mainly for medicinal purposes. A widespread and common weed of cultivation and disturbed ground. Whole plant poisonous. Chromosome number: 2n=24.
Distribution
Botswana. BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M Native to North America, now almost cosmopolitan, widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Zambia
Habit
Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1.5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet. Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1. 5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet
Branches
Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular. Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular
Leaves
Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin. Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin
Flowers
Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect; pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout. Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect.
Calyx
Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed. Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed
Corolla
Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1.5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved. Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1. 5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved
Stamens
Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1.8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline. Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1. 8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline
Pistil
Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular; style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous.
Fruits
Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment). Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment)
Seeds
Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1.2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy. Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1. 2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Habit
Shrub.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Erect branched, annual with smooth stems 1-2 ft. or more high
Flowers
Rather slender white (D. stramonium Linn. proper) or purple-violet (D. tatula Linn. proper) flowers. The flower-colour is of no taxonomic importance.

>

[UPB]
Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is.

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Nongué, carda, Pedro noche, chamico, manzano espinoso, hierba hedionda, estramonio, datira.

Datura stramonium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [118], Cape Verde K001134486
Jan 1, 2008 Wright, C. [3639], Cuba K000662243
Jan 1, 2008 Vincent [s.n.] K000662244
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201970
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201971
Sep 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073117
Jan 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073116
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [11234], Brazil K001073125
Jul 27, 1976 Ortega, R. [345], Mexico K000063036
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4902], Brazil K001073124
Aug 1, 1872 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073123
Hinton, G.B. [1671], Mexico K000063033
Hinton, G.B. [5181], Mexico K000063035
Rodal, M.J.N. [313], Brazil K001073115
Heringer, E.P. [7278], Brazil K001073118
Pickersgill, B. [RU72-404], Brazil K001073119
Galeotti, H.G. [1200], Mexico K000063032
Palmer, E. [409], Mexico K000063026
Palmer, E. [519], Mexico K000063027
Parry, C.C. [657], Mexico K000063030
Bourgeau, M. [110], Mexico K000063028
Bourgeau, M. [615], Mexico K000063029
Cardoso, J. [73], Cape Verde K001134485
Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Brazil K001073120
[illegible] [s.n.], Ecuador K000546089
Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546087
Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546088
Cope, T.A. [RBG 233], Great Britain K000914305
Cope, T.A. [RBG 275], Great Britain K000914306
Glaziou, A.F.M. [14184], Brazil K001073121
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6060], Brazil K001073122
s.coll. [s.n.], Sicilia K000759498
Jan 1, 1823 Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2637], Nepal Datura stramonium var. canescens K000196761 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2640] Datura tatula K000196770
van der Werff [1933], Ecuador Datura stramonium var. tatula K000546086

First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • (2019). http://www.abcjournal.org/index.php/BothaliaABC/article/view/39/33 epublication.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Smettan, H.W. (2016). Eingeschleppt und ausgerissen: Neophyten im bayerischen Oberinntal Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der heimischen Flora 86: 213-226.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2015). New floristic records in the Balkans: 26 Phytologia Balcanica 21: 53-91.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Bye, R. & Sosa, V. (2013). Molecular phylogeny of the Jimsonweed genus Datura (Solanaceae) Systematic Botany 38: 818-829.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Sluschny, H. & Schlüter, U. (2012). Zur Flora von Schwerin und Umgebung Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 49: 51-59.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Polozhij, A.V. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 12: 1-221. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Kochkareva, T.F. (ed.) (1986). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 8: 1-519. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aké Assi Contrib. 1: 177.
  • Sachet in Blakeslee, The Genus Datura 45
  • Satina & Avery in Blakeslee, The Genus Datura 18
  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 199
  • Chev. Bot. 468
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 257
  • Sp. Pl. 179 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 52, t. 8D (2002). TAB. 7, fig. D.
  • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244, t. 106 (1994).
  • Grabandt, Weeds of Crops & Gard. South. Afr.: 128 et fig. (1985).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 624 (1974).
  • Fieldiana, Bot. 24, 10: 41 (1974).
  • Palmer & Pitman, Trees South. Africa 3: 1976–1977 (1973).
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 309 (1972).
  • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 2 (1969).
  • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 164–166, fig. 16/a–d (1969).
  • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
  • M.D. Henderson & J.G. Anderson, Common Weeds S. Afr.: 266, fig. 132 (1966).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 882 (1963).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 946 cum fig. 235, 947 cum fig. 256, 960 (1962).
  • Chron. Bot. 20: 18, 19 cum fig. 1, 2/a, 3/a (1959).
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland: 47 (1956).
  • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 83 (1955).
  • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 73 (1953)
  • Rhod. Agric. J., Bull. 1099: 4, fig. 14 (1939).
  • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 cum fig. 58, 118 et t. 31 pro parte, fig. 59 (1932).
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 397 (1909).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 257 (1906).
  • De Wildeman, Miss. Ém. Laurent 1: 177 (1905) , 441 (1907).
  • F.C. 4, 2: 118 (1904)
  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 540 (1852).
  • ed. 2: 255 (1762).
  • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Polozhij, A.V. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 12: 1-221. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Kochkareva, T.F. (ed.) (1986). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 8: 1-519. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1965). Flora Kazakhstana 8: 1-445. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fl. Eth. 5: 158 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 219 (2006)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 29 (2005)
  • Fl. Egypt 3: 46 (2002)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 110 (1998)
  • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 188 (1987)
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 366 (1985)
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 165 (1969)
  • E.P.A. 2: 882 (1963)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd. ed.: 326 (1963)
  • F.P.U.: 129 (1962)
  • Chronica Botanica 20: 18 (1959)
  • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)
  • Syll. Fl. Cong.: 397 (1909)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 257 (1906)
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 118 (1904)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 753 (1898)
  • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 374 (1892)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 540 (1852)
  • Syst. Nat. 2, ed. 10: 932 (1759)
  • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/