1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Datura L.
      1. Datura stramonium L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Texas to Central America, Caribbean.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “in America nunc vulgaris per Europam”, Herb. Hort. Clifford 55, Datura 1 (BM!, lecto. designated by D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 624 (1973)). [See Hadkins et al. (1997) for problems associated with selection of lectotype & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 476 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual herbs up to 2(–4) m high, occasionally undershrubs, erect or spreading, sometimes unpleasantly aromatic.
    Branches
    Branches light green, brownish, yellow or purplish, smooth, occasionally hollow, glabrescent to pilose with multicellular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, often dark green, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or rhomboidal, (5–)8.6–15(–17) × 4.5–13(–15) cm, bases obliquely cuneate to cordate, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–6 deep acute lobes which often lacerate, apices acute to acute/acuminate, glabrescent to moderately pilose; petioles 2.2–7 cm long. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect; pedicels (3–)4–10 mm and erect in flower, elongating to 8–15(–25) mm in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical, (26–)30–45(–50) × 6–8 mm, sparsely pilose externally, lobes broadly to narrowly triangular, 3–10 × 1.5–6 mm, apices acute, margins pilose, base circumsessile forming a ridged collar or flange 3.5–8 mm diameter and 1.5–5 mm broad
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish, yellow, cream, white, pale or dull purple with prominent veins, tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpet-shaped above, 6–8.2(–9) cm long, glabrescent externally; tube long and slender, with 5 terminal acuminate to caudate teeth or tails 1.3–8 × 0.5–2 mm at base
    Stamens
    Stamens occasionally visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 2–3 cm; anthers oblong, yellow, yellow with purple margins or purplish, (2.5–)4–7 mm long
    Ovary
    Ovary dark brown, softly spinose, (2.5–)3–7 × 2.8–6 mm; style dark brown, (3.8–)4.2–6 cm long; stigma clavate, 1.5–3 mm long
    Fruits
    Fruit longitudinally ovoid usually spinous capsules, green yellowish or brownish, 2.5–5 × 1.8–4 cm (including spines), dehiscing by 4 valves splitting from the apex and reflexing to expose seeds; valves usually covered with acicular and sharply pointed unequal spines, 7–15 × 0.5–1.8 mm basally, smooth and glabrous but shortly pilose near base, occasionally valves smooth (but not in Flora area); subtended by the persistent remains of the calyx 6–18 × 4–8 mm, usually reflexed to the pedicel; fruiting pedicels elongated, stout, erect
    Seeds
    Seeds black or dark(rarely pale)-brown, reniform, occasionally discoid, 2.5–3.5 × 2.2–3.5 mm, not ridged, minutely and densely punctate, with distinct yellow or whitish elaisome
    Figures
    Fig 8/1–5, p 41
    Ecology
    A common weed of disturbed ground, waste places, gardens and plantations, in pastures, arable land, woodland and forest fringes; 550–2400 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    With regard to D. wallichii, there are 2 specimens labelled 2637 in K-WALL; specimen a) was collected in Nepal and b) from Bihar in northern India. Both seem good examples of D. stramonium and are presumably isosyntypes; a third specimen labelled 2639c in the Kew General Herbarium is also a good specimen of this species. Though typically characterised by spiny capsules, a number of variants with smooth capsules occur and some of these have been formally recognised. Safford (1921) reported this to be a variable character, and that both spiny and smooth capsules could be found on the same plant with the gene for prickles being dominant. As implied by its epithet, D. inermis is such a smooth-capsuled variant; all other features of this species described or illustrated on Jacquin’s plate imply that it is conspecific with D. stramonium. Smooth capsules are not thought to occur in the Floral area. Commonly known as Jimson- or Jamestown- weed, D. stramonium has been reported as a contaminant of some 40 different commercial crops in around 100 countries (cf. Hunziker, 2001), with its seeds becoming a toxic contaminant of many seed and grain harvests. All parts of the plant are rich in tropane alkaloids for which species is an important commercial source; they include hyoscyamine, hyoscine and atropine. This species is also the source of the drug stramonium and is now widely used medicinally in the Old World. Its poisonous qualities are well-known and are summarised by Verdcourt & Trump (1969).  Local populations are said to use it to induce drugged sleep, and to make intoxicant beer ( T 3); it is reported to be lethal to cattle and goats ( K 1) and is particularly dangerous when the plant occurs as a weed of crops such as wheat and maize when the seed can contaminate the resultant flour (cf. K 3). The seeds are also used to drive soldier ants away from native houses ( T 3), presumably through the beneficial mutualism existing between the seed elaisomes which attract the harvester ants responsible for their dispersal (Hunziker 2001).
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Probably native to Mexico, now a pantropical weed
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Pedicel
    Pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout
    Ovary
    Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular.
    Style
    Style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous
    Note
    Common name: “Thorn Apple”. Cultivated mainly for medicinal purposes. A widespread and common weed of cultivation and disturbed ground. Whole plant poisonous. Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    Distribution
    Botswana. BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M Native to North America, now almost cosmopolitan, widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Zambia
    Habit
    Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1.5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet. Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1. 5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet
    Branches
    Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular. Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin. Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect; pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout. Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed. Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1.5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved. Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1. 5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1.8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline. Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1. 8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline
    Pistil
    Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular; style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment). Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment)
    Seeds
    Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1.2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy. Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1. 2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect branched, annual with smooth stems 1-2 ft. or more high
    Flowers
    Rather slender white (D. stramonium Linn. proper) or purple-violet (D. tatula Linn. proper) flowers. The flower-colour is of no taxonomic importance.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Panamá, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is.

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Datura stramonium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [118], Cape Verde K001134486
    Jan 1, 2008 Wright, C. [3639], Cuba K000662243
    Jan 1, 2008 Vincent [s.n.] K000662244
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201970
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201971
    Sep 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073117
    Jan 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073116
    Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [11234], Brazil K001073125
    Jul 27, 1976 Ortega, R. [345], Mexico K000063036
    Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4902], Brazil K001073124
    Aug 1, 1872 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073123
    Hinton, G.B. [1671], Mexico K000063033
    Hinton, G.B. [5181], Mexico K000063035
    Rodal, M.J.N. [313], Brazil K001073115
    Heringer, E.P. [7278], Brazil K001073118
    Pickersgill, B. [RU72-404], Brazil K001073119
    Galeotti, H.G. [1200], Mexico K000063032
    Palmer, E. [409], Mexico K000063026
    Palmer, E. [519], Mexico K000063027
    Parry, C.C. [657], Mexico K000063030
    Bourgeau, M. [110], Mexico K000063028
    Bourgeau, M. [615], Mexico K000063029
    Cardoso, J. [73], Cape Verde K001134485
    Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Brazil K001073120
    [illegible] [s.n.], Ecuador K000546089
    Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546087
    Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546088
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 233], Great Britain K000914305
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 275], Great Britain K000914306
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [14184], Brazil K001073121
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [6060], Brazil K001073122
    s.coll. [s.n.], Sicilia K000759498
    Jan 1, 1823 Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2637], Nepal Datura stramonium var. canescens K000196761 Unknown type material
    van der Werff [1933], Ecuador Datura stramonium var. tatula K000546086
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2640] Datura tatula K000196770

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Kochkareva, T.F. (ed.) (1986). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 8: 1-519. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

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    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
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    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
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    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Kochkareva, T.F. (ed.) (1986). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 8: 1-519. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 158 (2006).
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 219 (2006)
    • F.Z. 8(4): 29 (2005)
    • Fl. Egypt 3: 46 (2002)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 110 (1998)
    • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 188 (1987)
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 366 (1985)
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    • E.P.A. 2: 882 (1963)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd. ed.: 326 (1963)
    • F.P.U.: 129 (1962)
    • Chronica Botanica 20: 18 (1959)
    • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)
    • Syll. Fl. Cong.: 397 (1909)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 257 (1906)
    • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 118 (1904)
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 753 (1898)
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 374 (1892)
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    • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0