1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Datura L.
      1. Datura metel L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Texas to Colombia.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Habit of the last (Datura innoxia), 2-3 ft. high
    Flowers
    White or wine-purple, sometimes (in cultivation) double flowers.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Habit
    Erect or occasionally decumbent herb or shrub, (0.2)0.6–2(3.5) m high, sometimes ± bushy, sometimes tinged purple or violet Erect or occasionally decumbent herb or shrub, (0.2)0.6–2(3.5) m high, sometimes ± bushy, sometimes tinged purple or violet.
    Branches
    Branches striate and ± sulcate, glabrous to ± densely pubescent especially when young Branches striate and ± sulcate, glabrous to ± densely pubescent especially when young.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones often geminate; petiole 1–8 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 4–24 × 2–20 cm, broadly to narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sometimes rhombic-ovate or elliptic, base cuneate to rounded or truncate, sometimes cordate, and oblique to dimidiate, often ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse to acute or acuminate, entire or sinuate to coarsely dentate or lobed with a few, irregular, broadly triangular, obtuse to acute teeth or lobes, at first densely pubescent, later sparsely pubescent, more densely so on the nerves, to glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin Leaves solitary, the upper ones often geminate; petiole 1–8 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 4–24 × 2–20 cm, broadly to narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, sometimes rhombic-ovate or elliptic, base cuneate to rounded or truncate, sometimes cordate, and oblique to dimidiate, often ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse to acute or acuminate, entire or sinuate to coarsely dentate or lobed with a few, irregular, broadly triangular, obtuse to acute teeth or lobes, at first densely pubescent, later sparsely pubescent, more densely so on the nerves, to glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or rarely 2 together, terminal or lateral, at first erect, later drooping. Flowers solitary or rarely 2 together, terminal or lateral, at first erect, later drooping; pedicel 5–11 mm long, stout, ± densely pubescent mainly towards the base and near the calyx, in fruit elongated to 20 mm.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 5–11 mm long, stout, ± densely pubescent mainly towards the base and near the calyx, in fruit elongated to 20 mm
    Calyx
    Calyx (3.5)4–7.5(8.5) × (0.8)1. 1–4 cm, ± 5-angled or slightly 5-ribbed, subdensely pubescent to glabrous, sometimes hairy along margins of lobes and midvein inside, drying with prominent longitudinal nerves; tube little or not inflated and slightly wider downwards and upwards; lobes subequal, (0.4)0.7–2.4 × (0.3)0.4–0.9 cm, ovate to triangular-lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate; in fruit the flange up to 15 mm wide, appressed to the fruit or ± reflexed Calyx (3.5)4–7.5(8.5) × (0.8)1.1–4 cm, ± 5-angled or slightly 5-ribbed, subdensely pubescent to glabrous, sometimes hairy along margins of lobes and midvein inside, drying with prominent longitudinal nerves; tube little or not inflated and slightly wider downwards and upwards; lobes subequal, (0.4)0.7–2.4 × (0.3)0.4–0.9 cm, ovate to triangular-lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate; in fruit the flange up to 15 mm wide, appressed to the fruit or ± reflexed.
    Corolla
    Corolla showy, white or yellow, purple or violet, sometimes purple or violet outside and whitish inside, 12–19 cm long, trumpet-shaped to ± tubular, simple or sometimes double or triple, sparsely pubescent, at least, or more densely, along the nerves, or ± glabrous; tube narrow, filling the calyx for half or a third of its length, with very short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (3)6–10 cm across, sinuately 5- or 10-toothed or -lobed, the teeth or lobes ovate or ± triangular with a ± wide base and narrowing to the apex into an acute to long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, usually recurved, when 10, 5 shorter alternating with 5 longer ones Corolla showy, white or yellow, purple or violet, sometimes purple or violet outside and whitish inside, 12–19 cm long, trumpet-shaped to ± tubular, simple or sometimes double or triple, sparsely pubescent, at least, or more densely, along the nerves, or ± glabrous; tube narrow, filling the calyx for half or a third of its length, with very short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (3)6–10 cm across, sinuately 5- or 10-toothed or -lobed, the teeth or lobes ovate or ± triangular with a ± wide base and narrowing to the apex into an acute to long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, usually recurved, when 10, 5 shorter alternating with 5 longer ones.
    Ovary
    Ovary up to 8 × 8 mm, shortly conical, with short (or rarely longer and thinner) appendages, very shortly pubescent or ± glabrous.
    Style
    Style 11–13(17.5) cm long, straight, glabrous
    Note
    The specimen Junod 214, from “Delagoa Bay”, referred to by Schinz & Junod in Mém. Herb. Boissier 10: 61 (1900), to ?D. fastuosa, was not seen by me. The specimen Craster 96 (K), fl. xii.1911, collected near Harare (Salisbury), has a single solitary flower with a large showy white simple corolla, ± exserted stamens and exserted stigma, and an indumentum of soft whitish to greyish or yellowish, curled ± appressed mostly eglandular short hairs, which are densest on young branches, petiole and leaf-under surface, peduncle and lower region of the calyx. It has a systematic position near Datura metel L., but the higher density of hairs all over and the existence of fleshy long slender appendages on the ovary, suggest Datura inoxia Mill. However, the absence of fruits does not allow a conclusion about the taxon. Edmonds notes on the specimen in 2002 that it might be a hybrid between D. inoxia and D. stramonium. Chromosome number: 2n=24
    Distribution
    Now widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Cultivated as a garden ornamental and also for medicinal purposes. A widespread and common weed of cultivation and disturbed ground. BOT N, ZIM C, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ M Native to America, formerly said to be native to southern central Asia, but see Symon & Haegi in Solanaceae III: 197–210 (1991). Malawi Mozambique Botswana. Zimbabwe
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5, included, rarely subexserted; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube and with a few white, relatively wide, short hairs, free upwards for 3.5–5(7) cm and ± glabrous; anthers 10–17.5 mm long, linear in outline. Stamens (4)5, included, rarely subexserted; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube and with a few white, relatively wide, short hairs, free upwards for 3.5–5(7) cm and ± glabrous; anthers 10–17.5 mm long, linear in outline
    Pistil
    Ovary up to 8 × 8 mm, shortly conical, with short (or rarely longer and thinner) appendages, very shortly pubescent or ± glabrous; style 11–13(17.5) cm long, straight, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit somewhat upright to nodding, reddish-brown or purplish when ripe, 3–3.8 × 2.4–3.3 cm including spines, ovoid or ± globose, with walls up to 4 mm thick, covered with few–many, stout, conical spines 2.5–8 mm long or tubercles, densely and shortly pubescent to ± glabrous, irregularly breaking up. Fruit somewhat upright to nodding, reddish-brown or purplish when ripe, 3–3.8 × 2.4–3.3 cm including spines, ovoid or ± globose, with walls up to 4 mm thick, covered with few–many, stout, conical spines 2.5–8 mm long or tubercles, densely and shortly pubescent to ± glabrous, irregularly breaking up
    Seeds
    Seeds whitish, yellowish-brown or brown, 4–6 × 4–5 × 1.4 mm, subcircular, ovate to obovate in outline, or sometimes ± reniform, strongly thickened and longitudinally ridged at the border, finely tuberculate to almost smooth; caruncle small, fleshy. Seeds whitish, yellowish-brown or brown, 4–6 × 4–5 × 1. 4 mm, subcircular, ovate to obovate in outline, or sometimes ± reniform, strongly thickened and longitudinally ridged at the border, finely tuberculate to almost smooth; caruncle small, fleshy
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “in Asia, Africa”, Herb. Hort. Clifford 55: Datura 2α(BM!, lecto. designated by Timmerman in Pharm. Journ. 118: 572 (1927)) [See also Hadkins et al., J.L.S. 125: 298 (1997) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 476 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual herbs up to 1.2 m high, occasionally bushy or shrubby, erect, often malodorous.
    Branches
    Branches greenish-brown, brown or purple, often becoming woody, smooth, glabrescent to pilose with eglandular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate to opposite, greenish yellow to dark green, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or rhomboidal, 7.5–13(–19) × 3.2–10.5(–17) cm, bases obliquely cuneate, margins sinuate to sinuate-dentate with up to 3 shallow obtuse lobes, apices acute, glabrescent to moderately pilose, denser on lower surfaces, midribs and veins; petioles 2.2–10 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect, sometimes scented; pedicels (4–)6.5–12 mm and erect, pilose, elongating to 10–29 mm in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical, (3.2–)6–12 × 6–14 cm, pilose externally, lobes usually broadly occasionally narrowly triangular, (6–)12–16 × 3.5–8 mm, apices acute, with pilose margins; basal ridged collar 4.5–6 × 7–11 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla white, cream, yellow, mottled- to deep purple with prominent veins, tubular below flaring for upper third and becoming funnel- or trumpetshaped, occasionally double or even triple, (11.8–)13–18 cm long flaring to 3–10 cm diameter, glabrescent to sparsely pilose externally, flared part with 5(–10) acute and often curved tips (3–)5–14 × 1–3 mm at base
    Stamens
    Stamens enclosed; filaments free for 2.5–4.8 cm; anthers oblong, cream or yellow, to yellowish orange, (10–)12–16 × 1.5–3 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary dark brown, 4–8 × 3.5–8 mm, tuberculate; style (9–)10–13.8 cm long; stigma 2–2.5 × 1.7–2.5 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit erect or nodding, globose to ovoid tuberculate capsules, green becoming brownish, 2–3 × 2–3 cm (including spines), dehiscing irregularly or by 2 or 4 valves; valves covered with conical, ridged and blunt (obtuse) unequal tubercles, 2–6 × 1–3 mm basally, pilose with short appressed hairs; subtended by the persistent discoid cupulate remains of the calyx 1.8–2.8 cm diameter and 3–9 mm broad; fruiting pedicels elongated, erect or nodding, stout
    Seeds
    Seeds greenish/yellow to light brown, reniform or D-shaped with distinct lateral ridge, 2.8–5 × 2–4 mm, minutely and densely foveolate, with dark brown elaiosome
    Figures
    Fig 8/11–13, p 41
    Ecology
    Weed of roadsides and other ruderal sites, particularly in sandy soil; 0–1100 m(–2400 m fide
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    Nees’ protologue of D. alba includes extensive notes, observations and references; he was clearly convinced that D. alba differed from D. metel and deserved specific recognition largely through their differences in stem pubescence. However, he appeared to base his new species on Roxburgh’s D. metel (Fl. Ind., 2: 238 (1824), which in turn referred to Willdenow’s D. metel (Sp. Pl., 1, Pt 2: 1009 (1798)). This in turn referred to Linnaeus’ original description (Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)) whose holotype is the Hort. Clifford specimen cited above (also cited by Willdenow), thereby making Nee’s species a nomen illegitimum. Willdenow also gave D. alba as a synonym of D. metel. Although Nees cited Wall. Cat. Suppl. n. 260 after the specific name, no specimens bearing this number could be found in the Supplements to Wallich’s catalogue. All plant parts are narcotic and there are reports of the seeds being used for smoking ( T ?4 & 6). Plants of this species are grown to keep snakes away in T 5. The fruiting specimen Gachathi & Opon 130/81 collected from the lake shore at Mbita Point Field Station, South Nyanza District ( K 5) is thought to belong to D. metel despite the only mature capsule being abnormally large (± 5 × 5 cm) and very sparsely spinose. The spines are however, very short, pilose throughout, pyramidal and blunt, though a flowering sample is necessary to confirm this identification. D. metel is thought to be the first Datura species to have reached the Old World. It has long been cultivated, possibly as early as the 10th century, for both its drug potential and its ornamental value, but is no longer known in the wild in its native habitat. Symon & Haegi (Solanaceae III: 205, 1991) suggested that it was a well-established cultivated species with a range of forms in its place of origin, and that these forms or cultigens arrived ‘ready-made’ in Europe. The range of colour forms in both the floral and vegetative parts, and the double and triple corolla variants of the single white-flowered form have led to the description of many cultigens and varieties, and to much of the taxonomic confusion surrounding this species. Child & Shaw (in BSBI News, 82: 55 (1999)) for example, distinguished five varieties and five formae within D. metel, largely on the basis of differing corolla colours.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 K4 K5 K6 K7 T3 T ?4, T5 T6 T ?8; P Z Range: Native to South America, possibly in the Antilles, now a widespread weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Panamá, Texas

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Datura metel L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Renvoize, S.A. [1366], Seychelles 7433.000
    Drouet, F. [2547], Brazil K001073127
    Gaumer, G.F. [1774], Mexico K000063043
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [11384], Brazil K001073126
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2639] K000196768
    Glaziou, A. [14183], Brazil K001073128
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073132
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001073131
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2638] Datura fastuosa K000196767
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 2638], Myanmar Datura fastuosa K000196766
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2638] Datura fastuosa K000196763
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2638] Datura fastuosa K000196764
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2638], India Datura fastuosa K000196765
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2638], Bangladesh Datura fastuosa K001116723

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0