1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium linariifolium Phil.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Chile.

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, in regioni litorali deserti herbosa ad Cachinal de la Costa, 13 Dec. 1853, R. A. Philippi s.n. (lectotype SGO 42217 [photo F, GH, MSB, NY, US], selected by Johnston (1928b: 37); isolectotype B† [photo F neg. no. 17329: F, GH, NY, US]).
    Habit
    Decumbent shrubs, 0.15 – 0.3 (− 0.6) m tall, with ascending branches, densely foliose to the base of the inflorescence
    Stem
    Stems and foliage strigose
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 13 leaves, sessile, linear to linear-spathulate, 8.5 – 40 × 1 – 5.5 mm; lamina strigose on both sides, green or greyish-green, margin entire, revolute, base attenuate, apex acute or obtuse, with only the main vein conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, congested, to c. 8 (− 14) cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly (c. 1 mm) pedicellate, alternate, erect
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical, green or brownish-green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base or free, strigose on both sides, 3 – 6 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm, free portion 2.5 – 6 mm, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, sparsely strigose, orange; limb horizontally spreading, 5.5 – 10 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 6 – 8.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, c. 1.5 mm long, above the apex of or overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.4 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 0.7 – 1.8 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, elongate, bilobate, c. 0.5 – 1.5 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, brown, c. 2 × 1.5 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, c. 1.5 × 1.5 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 26.5 – 28 × 15 – 17 μm Endoapertures c. 3.5 μm diam., circular or contracted at the centre Exine thickness c. 1.3 μm Amb lobes not deep Colpifereous sides convex (from Ricardi 3144 in Marticorena 1968)
    Distribution
    Coastal range of the provinces of Antofagasta (Región de Antofagasta), Chañaral and Copiapó (Región de Atacama), Chile, between 24°56'S and 27°4'S (Map 13). The collection locality of Zalensky XV866, given as Lago Chungará (c. 4200 m) is certainly erroneous.
    Ecology
    Rocky slopes, sandy plains and gravelly stream-ways, out of the fog zone, 0 – 1000 (− 1300) m. It can be found at low elevations below the fog zone, high elevations above the fog zone or leeward of the coastal mountains. It is seldom dominant, although in rainy years can become very abundant. It forms part of the coastal scrubs where Heliotropium pycnophyllum (Heliotropiaceae), Gypothamnium pinifolium, Oxyphyllum ulicinum Phil. (both Asteraceae), and Gymnophyton foliosum Phil. (Apiaceae) are the dominant species. Kohler (1970) reports it as part of the vegetation of dunes, where Tetragonia maritima (Aizoaceae), Nolana divaricata (Lindl.) I. M. Johnst. and N. carnosa Miers ex Dunal (Solanaceae) are dominant.
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC), see Luebert (2010).
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    In the protologue of Heliotropium linariifolium, Philippi (1860a) cites three syntypes, one from Miguel Díaz (SGO 42220), one from Paposo (SGO 42216,W12898), and one from Cachinal de la Costa (SGO 42217). In the protologue, the species is described as being 1.2 m tall, leaves 25 – 30 mm long, 3.7 – 4.2 mm wide, calyx 4.2 mm long, corolla white 7.5 mm long. These characters corresponds to what Johnston (1928b) described as H. philippianum, whose paratypes are the two first mentioned Philippi specimens. Johnston (1928b) lectotypified H. linariifolium with the material of Cachinal de la Costa, which is a decumbent shrub, not taller than 0.5 m, with orange corollas. This lectotype is therefore in conflict with the protologue and should be superseded in favour of one of the other Philippi specimens (Art. 9.19). In this case H. philippianum should be treated as synonym of H. linariifolium. However, such a change would contradict Art. 57.1, because the name H. linariifolium has been, since Reiche (1907), persistently applied to the species with orange flowers. The lectotypification of Johnston (1928b), although in conflict with the protologue of H. linariifolium, is here accepted. As a consequence, H. philippianum is the only valid name available for the species with white flowers.

    Heliotropium linariifolium is easily distinguished from the other species of section Cochranea by its orange corollas. Since corolla colour is sometimes difficult to determine in dry material, herbarium specimens of this species can be confounded with H. floridum (see discussion under that species), H. philippianum and, sometimes, H. eremogenum. These four species are phylogenetically closely related (Luebert & Wen 2008). From the latter it clearly differs in its larger leaves, but it is otherwise very similar, thus Johnston (1932: 7) erroneously cited material of H. eremogenum from Iquique as H. linariifolium. From H. philippianum, herbarium specimens are almost indistinguishable when there is no indication of flower colour or habit. H. philippianum is an erect shrub with white flowers, while H. linariifolium is a decumbent shrub with orange flowers. This is particularly problematic in the area around Paposo, where both species occur.

    The epithet linariifolium refers to its leaves similar to species of the genus Linaria Mill. (Plantaginaceae).

    [KBu]
    Use
    Johnston (1928b) and Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium linariifolium Phil. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Atacam.: 38 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 203)
    • Marticorena (1968: 44)
    • Johnston (1928b: 37)
    • Reiche (1907: 2391910: 197)
    • (Philippi 1860a: 381895: 354)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0