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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Venezuela.
Cestrum nocturnum L.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “Jamaica, Chilli”, Baeck s.n., Herb. Linn. 258.1 (LINN!, lecto.) designated by Deb, J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 1: 36 (1980) [see also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 406 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs, sub-shrubs or small trees 1–4 m high, often evergreen.
Morphology Stem
Stems light green, much-branched, spreading, occasionally arched; young stems pilose with simple spreading multicellular eglandular hairs, later glabrescent, stalked glands usually present throughout
Morphology Leaves
Leaves light to dark green, oblong-lanceolate, 5.5–9.6(–15) × 2.1–3.4(–5.3) cm, bases cuneate and often decurrent to stem, margins entire, apices acute to acuminate, both surfaces glabrescent but with stalked glands especially on the veins and midribs, membranaceous; pseudostipules usually present; petioles 0.8–1.2(–1.4) cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences complex leafy axillary and terminal panicles or racemes, often spicate, up to 10 cm long; axes shortly pilose; flowers delicate with strong nocturnal fragrance; bracts ligulate, 1.5–2.5 mm long, glabrescent to shortly pilose, some hairs glandular; pedicels usually erect, 0.5–2.5 mm long, terminating in distinct abscission layer, glabrescent with short stalked glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular/cupulate, light green, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, lobes equal or unequal, triangular, 0.5–0.8 × 0.7–1.3 mm, acute, glabrescent with ciliate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, cream, yellow or green, infundibuliform or tubular, 1.8–2.6 cm long and 6–10 mm diameter apically; tube usually cylindrical, 1.5–2 cm long, glabrous externally and internally; lobes acute or obtuse, narrowly triangular, usually spreading after anthesis, 3–5 × 1.2–3 mm, with densely pilose marginal bands externally, often inrolled (induplicate)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal, with anthers exserted; filaments free for 1–3 mm, curved inwards with sparsely pilose geniculate simple or forked appendage up to 1.3 mm long at point of adnation; anthers brown, 0.6–0.8 × 0.5–0.7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary green, globose or ovoid, 0.7–1.3 mm long, glabrous; disc greenish-white, cupulate, 1–1.3 mm broad; style (1.4–)1.7–2 cm long, usually exserted; stigma 0.7–1.1 mm broad. Berry white, globose to ovoid, 7–10 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 5–8 per berry, ovoid, prismatic, 3.5–4 mm long
Figures
Fig 1/11–12, p 11
Ecology
Occasional escape around villages, sawmills and arboreta; (?0–)1500–1650 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
With its fragrant flowers, this species is often planted for its night-time scent and is known as Queen- or Lady-of-the-Night or Night-blooming Jessamine. The flowers are probably pollinated by night-flying insects attracted to strongly fragrant white flowers. This species is also widely used as a medicinal, hedging and ornamental plant throughout the world, but has been implicated in fatal poisoning of horses.
Distribution
Flora districts: U2 K4 T2 T3 T6 Z (fide U.O.P.Z.) Range: Native to West Indies or Central America, widely introduced and cultivated in the tropics and subtropics

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 200 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Subarbusto, arbusto, arbolito
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Erect or drooping, sometimes scandent or spreading, shrub or treelet up to 4 m, puberulous at tips of branchlets, otherwise ± glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves greenish-grey, long petiolate, subovate or oblong-elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, sub-undulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary and terminal, racemiform cymes often combined into very large, loose, leafy, paniculiform, terminal inflorescences, pedicellate or subsessile, strongly scented at night.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, slightly puberulous outside and inside; corolla yellow to greenish-white, to 25(28) mm long, slenderly infundibuliform; tube to 21(24) mm, slightly constricted at the throat, glabrous outside; limb with 5 ovate-lanceolate, acute or sub-acute lobes minutely puberulous outside and finely pubescent or tomentose at the margins; stamens inserted considerably above the middle of the corolla tube, geniculate and distinctly denticulate at the base, glabrous, with the filament ridges rather densely covered with longish hairs extending downwards to very near the base of the corolla tube; ovary subglobose, glabrous, on an obconic stipe; style 18.5 mm long, filiform, glabrous, somewhat exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit white, 7.5–10 mm long, ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid
Note
Common name: “Galán de Noche” or “Night-blooming Jessamine”.
Distribution
Originally from the West Indies, Mexico, Central America and northern South America, now commonly cultivated as a garden ornamental or as a hedge in the Old World. Zimbabwe Malawi

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
dama de noche, flautilla, galán de la noche, jazmín, jazmín de noche, jazmín nocturno

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Malawi, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Cestrum nocturnum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 14, 2013 Bartolomeu, J.G. [15303], Brazil K000964672
Oct 14, 2013 Mexia, Y.E.J. [4184], Brazil K000964673
Jun 14, 2007 Ambriansyah et al. [AA 2644], Kalimantan K000224422
Jun 19, 2006 Romero [21857], Philippines K000224084
Jun 19, 2006 Romero, E. et al. [7843], Philippines K000224085
Aug 5, 2003 Madulid et al. [27459], Philippines K000183309
Jan 1, 2000 Thieme, C. [5367], Honduras K000585159 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2000 Tuerckheim, H. von [7751], Guatemala K000585158 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2000 Pringle, C.G. [6831], Morelos K000585157 isosyntype
Jan 1, 2000 Cooper, J.J. [5793], Costa Rica K000585160 isosyntype
Sellow, Brazil Cestrum multiflorum K000449009 isotype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Beaman, J. & Anderson, C. (2004). The plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural History Publications (Borneo).
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Candollea 7: 67 (1936)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 631 (1852)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 10 (2005)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 138 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 105 (2006).
  • Fl. Madagascar, Solanaceae: 18 (1994)
  • Solanaceae V: 114 (2001)
  • Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 187 (1949)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0