1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Pharus P.Browne
      1. Pharus latifolius L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 30-100 cm long; 3 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths loose; keeled; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long; erose. Leaf-blade base with a false petiole; petiole 5-7 cm long. Leaf-blades inverted; elliptic; 15-30 cm long; 30-80 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation slanting obliquely from midrib; with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence a panicle. Peduncle pubescent above. Panicle open; ovate; 15-30 cm long; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches spreading; simple. Panicle axis puberulous; with hooked hairs; bearing deciduous branches. Panicle branches stiff; pubescent; with hooked hairs. Sexes mixed. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets pedicelled; 1 in a cluster. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; curved; subterete; 10-17 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; 1 flowered; separately deciduous; lanceolate; 2.8-4 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma 5 -veined.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; curved; subterete; 10-17 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 9-12 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; scarious; dark brown; without keels; 7 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 10-13 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; scarious; dark brown; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear; subterete; 10-17 mm long; cartilaginous; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy above; with hooked hairs. Lemma margins involute; interlocking with palea keels. Lemma apex acute; with a conical beak; with this appendage 1-1.5 mm long. Palea linear; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 6; 1.4-1.7 mm long. Stigmas 3; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; sulcate on hilar side; 9-10 mm long.
    Male
    Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; 1 flowered; separately deciduous; lanceolate; 2.8-4 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma 5 -veined.
    Distribution
    North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, and Brazil.
    Reference
    Phareae. Fl Costa Rica.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1700 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Pharus latifolius L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 26, 2013 Silva, A. [154], Brazil K000947337
    Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [10224], Brazil K000947341
    Jan 1, 1944 Archer, W.A. [8230], Brazil K000947339
    Calderon, C.E. [2070], Brazil K000947340
    Krukoff, B.A. [6461], Brazil K000947338
    Spruce [1102], Brazil K000947336

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1269 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0