1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Capsicum L.
      1. Capsicum annuum L.

        A bewildering variety of colourful and spicy fruits make Capsicum peppers instantly recognisable to both gardeners and chefs. Originally from South and Central America, their popularity continues to grow across the world due to their ease of cultivation, frequently sharp taste and attractive appearance.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Stout herb 2-5 ft. high, much branched, angular, glabrous stems
    Flowers
    Flowers white or greenish
    Fruits
    Fruits red
    Note
    Cultivated.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    This species includes a wide variety of peppers, including chilli peppers used in curries and sweet bell peppers used in salads.

    A bewildering variety of colourful and spicy fruits make Capsicum peppers instantly recognisable to both gardeners and chefs. Originally from South and Central America, their popularity continues to grow across the world due to their ease of cultivation, frequently sharp taste and attractive appearance.

    There are more than 200 common names in use for this species. The most common include chilli pepper, paprika (sweet varieties); bell pepper, cayenne, halapenos, chitlepin (hot varieties); and Christmas peppers (ornamental). Capsicum annuum should not be confused with 'black pepper', Piper nigrum, which belongs to a distantly related plant family (Piperaceae).

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Wild ancestors of Capsicum annuum evolved in Bolivia and southern Brazil, probably long before human habitation. Archaeological research estimates that they were first domesticated at least 6,100 years ago.

    Numerous varieties were known to the Aztecs in Mexico before the Spanish arrived. Christopher Columbus brought seeds to Europe, and Capsicum annuum began to be planted extensively in Portuguese colonies in Africa, India and Asia. It is now grown around the world, both commercially and domestically.

    Description

    An attractive, upright shrub usually less than 1 m tall, with small, white, pendent flowers and elongated, yellow, orange or red fruits (berries). It can be distinguished from other types of domesticated peppers by flowers that are solitary rather than in groups, and filaments (thread-like stalks supporting the anther) that are not purple.

    Capsicum annuum can be difficult to separate from the cultivated C. chinense (the hottest pepper) and C. frutescens (Tabasco pepper) and their morphological features can overlap. These three species share the same ancestral gene pool and are sometimes called the 'annuum-chinense-frutescens complex'.

    The varieties and cultivars of Capsicum annuum are classified on the basis of their fruit shapes. There are so many different kinds (several thousand) that nobody knows exactly how many there are. More and more local variants are appearing in cultivation across the world because existing varieties cross-pollinate easily.

    Uses - fruits

    Capsicum fruits have been part of the human diet for at least 10,000 years. The fruits of non-pungent (sweet) varieties are eaten raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable. They are rich sources of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin A.

    Pungent types, including chillies, are used as a condiment or spice for seasoning. The dried fruits are ground to a powder (paprika) and used as an ingredient in curry powder. The pungency is mainly due to the presence of chemical compounds called capsaicinoids, which deter most mammals from eating the fruit. Birds, however, will eat them without harm (and indeed help to disperse the seeds).

    Uses - pepper extracts

    Pepper extracts are used to flavour ginger beer, and are used in pharmaceutical products for treating conditions such as athlete's foot and arthritis. Maya Indians used pepper spray as a weapon against their enemies, and today some police forces around the world use it to control unruly individuals.

    Uses - decorations

    Ornamental varieties of Capsicum annuum (the fruits of which are also edible) are grown primarily for the decorative value of their fruit, often displaying fruits of four or five colours simultaneously on one plant. The popular 'Christmas peppers' were originally available at Christmas time and had green and red fruits.

    How hot is a 'chilli'?

    In 1912, a pharmacist named Scoville developed an index for measuring the pungency of peppers. Scoville Heat Units (SHU) are still used today and measure by how much a chilli extract has to be diluted in sugar syrup before its heat becomes undetectable to a panel of expert tasters.

    Sweet (or bell) peppers rank at 0 SHU, while New Mexico green chillies are mildly pungent at 1,500 SHU. The 'hottest' of the world's chillies exceed 80,000 SHU, but even they are relatively mild compared to the hottest of them all (the 'infinity chilli'), which registers over 1,000,000 SHU. Imagine that next time you have a curry!

    Millennium Seed Bank - Saving seeds

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    There are two collections of Capsicum annuum seeds stored in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

    This species at Kew

    Specimens of the fruits and seeds of Capsicum annuum are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building and are available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Bolivia, Brazil
    Ecology
    Tropical deciduous forest. Widely cultivated.
    Conservation
    Widespread; Least Concern (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    Juice (of the fruit) can cause dermatitis; avoid contact with eyes.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Herb. Clifford: 59, Capsicum 1 (BM!, lecto.) designated by D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 591 (1974). [See Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 382 (2007) for a discussion of the controversy surrounding the selection of this sheet as the lectotype]
    Habit
    Shrubby herb or small shrub, to 1.5 m, often short-lived.
    Stem
    Stems ridged, angular, woody, erect, much-branched, pilose when young, glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves membranaceous, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2.2–8(–12) × 1–4(–8.5) cm, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, apices acuminate, surfaces sparsely pilose, denser on margins, veins and midribs, with pilose domatia on lower surfaces, hairs as stems; petioles 1–3.5(–5.5) cm, pilose
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually 1-flowered in branch or leaf axil, rarely 2-flowered; flowers white to greenish- or bluish-white; pedicels erect or recurved and slender thickening apically in flower, 7–20 mm long, recurved in fruit when thickened beneath calyx and often woody, 1.2–3.5 cm long, glabrescent
    Calyx
    Calyx shallowly cupulate to campanulate, 2–3.2 × (1.6)2–5.5 mm apically, with 5 narrowly triangular lobes 0.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.6 mm, persistent but only slightly enlarged in fruit, sparsely pilose with spreading hairs to glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla stellate, 5–9 × ± 11 mm diameter with short tube ± 1.2 mm long; lobes ovate to triangular, 2.8–5 × 2–4 mm, spreading or reflexed after anthesis, shortly puberulous on margins and lobe apices otherwise glabrescent externally, glabrous internally
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments 1–2 mm long, glabrous; anthers blue to purple, oblong, 1.5–2(–2.5) × 0.6–1(–1.4) mm, basifixed, exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary brown, ovoid, 1.5–2 × 1.1–1.6 mm, glabrous; disc 1.5 mm broad and 0.5 mm high; style filiform, 3–5.5 mm long, glabrous, exserted ± 1 mm, straight or geniculate; stigma 0.2–0.5 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit usually pendulous, green, yellow, orange, red or blackish, globose, ovoid to narrowly conical or elongated berries, (1.1–)2.4–5.2(–15) × (1.2–)1.5–2.2(–4.5) cm, smooth, often apically acute and sometimes depressed, subtended by broadly cupulate calyx 2–4 × 7–15 mm, which often semi-reflexed away from berry base
    Seeds
    Seeds yellow to yellowish-orange, orbicular to discoidal, 3.2–5.5 × 3.2–4.2 mm, with thickened margin, foveolate/reticulate
    Figures
    Fig 12/7 & 8, p 60
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food, flavouring, ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Guatemala, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Oman

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Maldives, Mali, Marquesas, Mauritius, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Chilli pepper

    Capsicum annuum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5143], Cameroon K000339796
    Jan 1, 2005 Ekman, E.L. [2116], Haiti K000809082
    Jan 1, 2005 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1811], Guyana K000809084
    Oct 1, 2004 Bardot-Vaucoulon, M. et al. [1257], Madagascar K000449277
    Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [922], Cameroon K000212618
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1612], Cameroon K000109658
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1572], Cameroon K000109659
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1532], Cameroon K000109660
    Nov 1, 2001 Lugas, L. [2744], Indonesia K000592614
    Jan 1, 1994 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [3465], Guyana K000809085
    Jan 1, 1988 Zarucchi, J.L. [5478], Colombia K000809091
    Jul 2, 1985 Hutchison, P.C. [3541], Peru K000809095
    Sep 1, 1940 Stork, H.E. [9463], Peru K000809093
    Sep 1, 1940 Stork, H.E. [9462], Peru K000809094
    16650.000
    Schunke, J. [6554], Peru K000809092
    Palmer, E. [137-140], Mexico K000063160
    Palmer, E. [135], Mexico K000063161
    Vázquez T., M. [611], Mexico K000063163
    Chazaro B., M. [540], Mexico K000063162
    Habib, A.F. [2064], India K000592613
    May 1, 2008 Wright C. [384], Cuba Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum K000662195
    s.coll. [s.n.], Japan Capsicum cordiforme K000759469
    Arsène, G., Mexico Capsicum grossum K000063187
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2643], India Capsicum grossum K001116729
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2643] Capsicum grossum K001116730
    Arsène, G. [142], Mexico Capsicum longum K000063188
    Bohnhof, M.H. [301], China Capsicum longum K000592617
    Capsicum minimum 17702.000
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116724
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116725

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
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    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
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    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
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    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
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    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
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    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
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    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
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    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Aguilar-Melendez, A., Morrell, P. L., Roose, M. L. & Kim, Seung-Chul (2009). Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles ( Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. American Journal of Botany 96: 1190-1202.
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    • Bothalia 14: 845 (1983). Described from South America.
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0