1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum lycopersicum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “Habitat in America calidiore”, Herb. Linnaeus 248.16 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Deb in Journ. Econ. Bot., 1: 41 (1980)) [see also Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 342, f.12 (1990) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 860 (2007)]
    General
    Annual herb, erect, procumbent, trailing or straggling up to 2 m in height, sometimes using associated vegetation for support; branches spreading or ascending, stems fleshy or herbaceous, light to dark green; all parts viscid-pubescent with eglandular and glandular hairs, denser on young vegetative and floral stems
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, usually strongly aromatic, 9–31 × 6–14 cm with rachides 4.2–14 cm long, usually interrupted imparipinnate with 2–8 pairs of leaflets which light green above, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3–5(–7) × 1–3.8(–5) cm, bases cordate to cuneate, usually oblique, irregularly and usually deeply incised and serrate to sinuate, apices obtuse, acute or acuminate; surfaces viscid, pubescent below, sparser above, often stipulate and alternating with small entire ovate interstitial leaflets 0.8–1.2 × 0.6–0.7 cm; petioles 1.2–7 cm long, petiolules 0.4–2 cm, often with small pairs of leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences leaf-opposed to extra-axillary racemose simple or forked cymes, usually 5–12-flowered; flowers pendent, usually 5partite but often 6–10-partite in cultivars; peduncles 0.5–3.5 cm long in flower, 2–4.8 cm long in fruit; pedicels 4–15 mm long in flower, 1–1.6 cm long in fruit, articulated at or above the middle from where deflexed in flower and in fruit; axes pubescent with short appressed and long spreading glandular-headed hairs
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate/stellate, divided almost to base, 3.5–11 mm long, densely pubescent externally; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 3–9 × 0.7–2 mm, acute, strongly reflexed in fruit when 7–14 × 1.5–2.8 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, with greenish basal star, stellate, 1.4–2.4 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1.3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 5–9 × 1.3–3(–4) mm, glandular-pubescent externally, glabrous internally, strongly reflexed exposing androecium after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments flat, fused to each other forming a ring, 0.3–0.8 mm long, pubescent to glabrescent; anthers yellow, 5.5–7 × 0.6–1.3 mm, connivent to form a bottle-shaped cone 5–8 × 1.8–3.6 mm with sterile beak, dehiscing by lateral fissures from apex of fertile section
    Ovary
    Ovary usually bilocular but plurilocular with false septa in cultivated varieties, 1.3–1.6 × 1.8–2 mm, ridged, glabrous; style straight, 5.5–7.3 × 0.2–0.4 mm, hairy in lower part, usually included, occasionally exserted to 1 mm; stigma green, capitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.2–0.8 × 0.3–0.5 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit red, orange or yellow, globose, ovoid to pyriform berries, 1–10 cm diameter, often depressed or irregularly lobed, glabrous and smooth, pericarp thick, sweet-tasting
    Seeds
    Seeds usually > 100, yellow to light brown, elliptic-ovoid, 3–3.8 × 1.7–2.4 mm, flattened, verrucate, often covered with the remnants of strands of thickening appearing as pseudo-hairs, enclosed in mucilage; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Widely cultivated, and a common to occasional escape on roadsides and in waste places, frequently near habitation; often naturalised on river banks, in marshy areas, woodland, forest areas and open places; spread by birds and baboons; 750–2000 m
    Note
    Commonly known as the Tomato, Golden- or Love-apple, this species is one of the most important global vegetables which is cultivated in most tropical and temperate countries, but which is now only known in cultivation. Over 500 cultivars have been bred resulting in enormous variations in fruit size, shape and colour. The small-fruited L. esculentum Mill. var . cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef., for example, is commonly known as the cherry tomato. The fruits are eaten raw or cooked, with commercial tomato sauce being made from the berry flesh, while the leaves are used as a vegetable. The species probably originated in Peru or Ecuador from where, in pre-Colombian times, it could have spread north as a weed (cf. Mansfeld, 2001). The considerable morphological diversity found in Mexico suggests that it was first domesticated there, and this may have been the source of the first tomatoes to reach Europe (cf. Heiser, 1969). It is widely grown thoughout Africa; in the floral area it is cultivated for home consumption, and for sale in both local markets and the cities. Nevertheless, African herbarium specimens of this species are rare even though the tomato is considered to be the most important vegetable crop in most West African countries (Rouamba in van den Berg et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 245–250 (2001)). An extensive list of synonyms of this species – as Lycopersicon esculentum - is given in Mansfeld (2001) together with a bibliography of relevant references and in the more recent publication by Peralta et al. (2008). This species and related taxa contain steroidal glycoalkaloids, with the major component being α-tomatine.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U4 K4 T2 T3 T4 Range: Native to the Andes of S America, but now cultivated and escaped throughout the world including Cape Verde Islands, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimb Range: Madagascar, Comoro Islands, St Helena, Seychelles & Ascension Islands, Rodrigues and Mauritius, S, C & E Europe, the Middle East, India, China, N, C and S America but nowhere truly naturalised

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Peru

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, British Columbia, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, Selvagens, Society Is., South Carolina, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Solanum lycopersicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2006 Freeman [10] K001134489
    Jan 1, 2006 Hooker, J.D. (?) [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134488
    Jan 1, 2002 Linden, J. [252], Mexico K000063063
    Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195127
    Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195128
    Jan 1, 2002 Darwin, C. [s.n.] K000005490
    Jan 1, 2002 Coulter [1241], Mexico K000005489
    Jun 24, 1905 Sinclair, J. [s.n.] K000195139
    Jun 24, 1905 Ingoldby, C.M. [414], Turkey K000195105
    Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Lebanon K000195095
    Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195102
    Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005469
    Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005472
    Jun 24, 1905 Simpson, N.D. [5441], Egypt K000195091
    Jun 24, 1905 Vogel, E. [s.n.], Niger K000005484
    Jun 24, 1905 Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000195120
    Jun 24, 1905 Pickersgill, B. [RO72-365], Brazil K000195117
    Jun 24, 1905 Loher, A. [4385], Philippines K000005466
    Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195134
    Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195135
    Jun 24, 1905 Bourgeau, E. [1447a], Spain K000005451
    Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [82], Austria K000195109
    Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [487], India K000195136
    Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [1252], Thailand K000005480
    Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [900], Thailand K000005481
    Jun 24, 1905 Stapf, O. [s.n.] K000195093
    Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [29401b], Indonesia K000005473
    Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [37842b], Indonesia K000005474
    Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [21293b], Indonesia K000005475
    Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [27962b], Indonesia K000005476
    Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [22623b], Indonesia K000005477
    Jun 24, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [483], India K000005487
    Jun 24, 1905 Harris, W. [11896], Jamaica K000195124
    Jun 24, 1905 Sintenis, P. [s.n.], Puerto Rico K000195122
    Jun 24, 1905 Burchell, W.J. [69942] K000195116
    Jun 24, 1905 Britton, N.L. [1089], Trinidad & Tobago K000195123
    Jun 24, 1905 Watt, G. [6281], India K000005486
    Jun 24, 1905 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [s.n.], Cambodia K000005485
    Jun 24, 1905 Tate, R. [257(232)], Nicaragua K000195121
    Jun 24, 1905 Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Portugal K000005450
    Jun 24, 1905 Hu, S.Y. [5341], China K000005454
    Jun 24, 1905 Cuadra, A. [A1144], Malaysia K000005470
    Jun 24, 1905 Taylor, P.M. [P357], Indonesia K000005478
    Jun 24, 1905 Wallich, N. [2611B], India K000005460
    Jun 24, 1905 Dinsmore, J.E. [3106], Jordan K000195096
    Jun 24, 1905 Mill, J.S. [s.n.], France K000195107
    Jun 24, 1905 Gardner, M.F. [1789], Brazil K000195118
    Jun 24, 1905 Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Japan K000005447
    Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005457
    Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005458
    Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1157], Philippines K000005464
    Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1108], Philippines K000005465
    Jun 24, 1905 Crisp, P. [171] K000195097
    Jun 24, 1905 Lévy, P. [5], Nicaragua K000195137
    Jun 24, 1905 Lakshnakara, M.C. [1362], Thailand K000005479
    Jun 24, 1905 Berlandier, J.L. [2405-975], Mexico K000195131
    Jun 24, 1905 Buysman, M. [190] K000005471
    Jun 24, 1905 Heyde, E.T. [6360], Guatemala K000195132
    Jun 24, 1905 Oldham, R. [343], Taiwan K000005449
    Jun 24, 1905 Glaziou, A.F.M. [12098], Brazil K000195119
    Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195110
    Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195111
    Jun 24, 1905 Haussknecht, H.C. [s.n.], Syria K000195094
    Jun 24, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [14], Philippines K000005467
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000005448
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], Russian Federation K000005461
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [160S], Portugal K000195085
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [26049], Iraq K000195089
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195101
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195113
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195114
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195115
    Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195140
    Jun 24, 1905 Rottler, J.P. [s.n.], India K000005455
    Jun 24, 1905 Last, G.V.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195103
    Jun 24, 1905 Wright, C.A. [s.n.] K000195108
    Jun 24, 1905 Heldreich, T. von [s.n.], Greece K000195104
    Jun 24, 1905 Jameson, D. [152] K000005453
    Jun 24, 1905 Hoyle, H.b. [s.n.], India K000005456
    Jun 24, 1905 Sharma, B.D. [167435], India K000005459
    Jun 24, 1905 Bukasov, S. [392], Mexico K000005462
    Jun 24, 1905 Nafday, K.U.R. [159], India K000005482
    Jun 24, 1905 St Vincent [36] K000005483
    Jun 24, 1905 Shabeta, J.R. [191] K000195092
    Jun 24, 1905 Lange, P.J. De [NF149], Australia K000195112
    Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195133
    Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195138
    Greenway, P.J. [13437], Tanzania K001157732
    Greenway, P.J. [11334], Tanzania K001157733
    Trapnell, C.G. [1458], Zambia K001158637
    Maitland, T.D. [702], Uganda K001157740
    Price, W.R. [460], Taiwan K000005446
    Huxley, P. [164], Tanzania K001157734
    Brummitt, R.K. [12408], Malawi K001158636
    Strachey, R. [8], India K000005452
    Simpson, N.D. [2147], Egypt K001152169
    Ward, C.J. [6210], South Africa K001159332
    Edwards, S. [3810], Ethiopia K001156397
    Welwitsch [6046], Angola K001029818
    Nee, M. [34447], Brazil K000005390
    Nee, M. [16065], USA K000005392
    Baron, R. [2294], Madagascar K001158936
    Baron, R. [4142], Madagascar K001158937
    Grimshaw, J.M. [94674], Tanzania K001157736
    Ekman, E.L. [H 11373], Dominican Republic K000005366
    Rodin, R.J. [2682], South Africa K001159333
    Mwangangi, O.M. [1710], Kenya K001157738
    Dowson, W.J. [465], Kenya K001157739
    Meller, C.J. [s.n.] K001158635
    Newbould, J.G.B. [4411], Tanzania K001157735
    Prior, A. [s.n.] K000005391
    Mesfin, T. [1753], Ethiopia K001156396
    Licent, E. [892], China K000005444
    Hu, S.Y. [9025], Hong Kong K000005388
    Combs, R. [225], Cuba K000005367
    Kisena [53], Tanzania K001157737
    Sintenis, P.E.E. [2443], Puerto Rico K000005365
    Egger, B. [496] K000005393
    Mandon, G. [391], Bolivia K000005399
    s.coll [3380], Egypt K000005371
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005375
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005376
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005378
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K000005384
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005385
    s.coll [5118], Egypt K000005386
    s.coll [K220] K000005400
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116567
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116568
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116569
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611], India K001116570
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116571
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116572
    Marshall, J. [101], United Kingdom K000005383
    Herb Forster [s.n.] K000005368
    Starke [s.n.] K000005373
    Herb Goodenough [15] K000005374
    Curtis, J. [s.n.], France K000005379
    Perumal, P. [21566], India K000005387
    Epenhuijsen, C.W. van [16], Nigeria K000005389
    Chung, H.-.H. [2431], China K000005445
    Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169239
    Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169240
    Guzman C, U. [3041], Mexico K001160487
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pseudolycopersicum K001169843
    Lycopersicon esculentum 17703.000
    Hinton, G.B. [5813], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063061
    Mexia, Y. [8941], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063065
    Gaumer, G.F. [2272], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063064
    Calzada, J.I. [1852], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063067
    Velázquez L., C. [173], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063066
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 198], Great Britain Lycopersicon esculentum K000914297

    First published in Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.

    Not accepted by

    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Lycopersicon esculentum.]

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • (1753) incl. var.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Syst. Bot. Monogr. 84 133 (2008).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 69 (2005)
    • E.J. 54: 500 (1917)
    • P.O.A. C: 356 (1895)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/