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This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and for food.
Solanum lycopersicum

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, trepadora

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “Habitat in America calidiore”, Herb. Linnaeus 248.16 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Deb in Journ. Econ. Bot., 1: 41 (1980)) [see also Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 342, f.12 (1990) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 860 (2007)]
Morphology General
Annual herb, erect, procumbent, trailing or straggling up to 2 m in height, sometimes using associated vegetation for support; branches spreading or ascending, stems fleshy or herbaceous, light to dark green; all parts viscid-pubescent with eglandular and glandular hairs, denser on young vegetative and floral stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, usually strongly aromatic, 9–31 × 6–14 cm with rachides 4.2–14 cm long, usually interrupted imparipinnate with 2–8 pairs of leaflets which light green above, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3–5(–7) × 1–3.8(–5) cm, bases cordate to cuneate, usually oblique, irregularly and usually deeply incised and serrate to sinuate, apices obtuse, acute or acuminate; surfaces viscid, pubescent below, sparser above, often stipulate and alternating with small entire ovate interstitial leaflets 0.8–1.2 × 0.6–0.7 cm; petioles 1.2–7 cm long, petiolules 0.4–2 cm, often with small pairs of leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences leaf-opposed to extra-axillary racemose simple or forked cymes, usually 5–12-flowered; flowers pendent, usually 5partite but often 6–10-partite in cultivars; peduncles 0.5–3.5 cm long in flower, 2–4.8 cm long in fruit; pedicels 4–15 mm long in flower, 1–1.6 cm long in fruit, articulated at or above the middle from where deflexed in flower and in fruit; axes pubescent with short appressed and long spreading glandular-headed hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate/stellate, divided almost to base, 3.5–11 mm long, densely pubescent externally; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 3–9 × 0.7–2 mm, acute, strongly reflexed in fruit when 7–14 × 1.5–2.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, with greenish basal star, stellate, 1.4–2.4 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1.3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 5–9 × 1.3–3(–4) mm, glandular-pubescent externally, glabrous internally, strongly reflexed exposing androecium after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; filaments flat, fused to each other forming a ring, 0.3–0.8 mm long, pubescent to glabrescent; anthers yellow, 5.5–7 × 0.6–1.3 mm, connivent to form a bottle-shaped cone 5–8 × 1.8–3.6 mm with sterile beak, dehiscing by lateral fissures from apex of fertile section
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary usually bilocular but plurilocular with false septa in cultivated varieties, 1.3–1.6 × 1.8–2 mm, ridged, glabrous; style straight, 5.5–7.3 × 0.2–0.4 mm, hairy in lower part, usually included, occasionally exserted to 1 mm; stigma green, capitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.2–0.8 × 0.3–0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, orange or yellow, globose, ovoid to pyriform berries, 1–10 cm diameter, often depressed or irregularly lobed, glabrous and smooth, pericarp thick, sweet-tasting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually > 100, yellow to light brown, elliptic-ovoid, 3–3.8 × 1.7–2.4 mm, flattened, verrucate, often covered with the remnants of strands of thickening appearing as pseudo-hairs, enclosed in mucilage; sclerotic granules absent.
Ecology
Widely cultivated, and a common to occasional escape on roadsides and in waste places, frequently near habitation; often naturalised on river banks, in marshy areas, woodland, forest areas and open places; spread by birds and baboons; 750–2000 m
Note
Commonly known as the Tomato, Golden- or Love-apple, this species is one of the most important global vegetables which is cultivated in most tropical and temperate countries, but which is now only known in cultivation. Over 500 cultivars have been bred resulting in enormous variations in fruit size, shape and colour. The small-fruited L. esculentum Mill. var . cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef., for example, is commonly known as the cherry tomato. The fruits are eaten raw or cooked, with commercial tomato sauce being made from the berry flesh, while the leaves are used as a vegetable. The species probably originated in Peru or Ecuador from where, in pre-Colombian times, it could have spread north as a weed (cf. Mansfeld, 2001). The considerable morphological diversity found in Mexico suggests that it was first domesticated there, and this may have been the source of the first tomatoes to reach Europe (cf. Heiser, 1969). It is widely grown thoughout Africa; in the floral area it is cultivated for home consumption, and for sale in both local markets and the cities. Nevertheless, African herbarium specimens of this species are rare even though the tomato is considered to be the most important vegetable crop in most West African countries (Rouamba in van den Berg et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 245–250 (2001)). An extensive list of synonyms of this species – as Lycopersicon esculentum - is given in Mansfeld (2001) together with a bibliography of relevant references and in the more recent publication by Peralta et al. (2008). This species and related taxa contain steroidal glycoalkaloids, with the major component being α-tomatine.
Distribution
Flora districts: U4 K4 T2 T3 T4 Range: Native to the Andes of S America, but now cultivated and escaped throughout the world including Cape Verde Islands, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimb Range: Madagascar, Comoro Islands, St Helena, Seychelles & Ascension Islands, Rodrigues and Mauritius, S, C & E Europe, the Middle East, India, China, N, C and S America but nowhere truly naturalised

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 100 - 2500 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
tomate, tomate de riñón, bovista, tomate común, tomate grande

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, with glandular aromatic hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade at least 10–20 cm long, mostly pinnately divided into ovate-lanceolate, irregularly serrate segments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, 2–2.5 cm in diam.; lobes narrowly oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 6–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style c. 12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry red to yellow, subglobose, ovoid or pear-shaped, very variable in size
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–4 mm long, enclosed in mucilage.
Distribution
Widely cultivated in Somalia; native to South America.
Vernacular
Nyaanya, yaanya (Somali); tomato (English).

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (Cuervo 1999).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FSOM]
Use
Edible fruits

Native to:

Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, Selvagens, Society Is., South Carolina, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Tomate, tomate de riñón, tomate grande, tomate común.

Solanum lycopersicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2006 Hooker, J.D. (?) [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134488
Jan 1, 2006 Freeman [10] K001134489
Jan 1, 2002 Darwin, C. [s.n.] K000005490
Jan 1, 2002 Coulter [1241], Mexico K000005489
Jan 1, 2002 Linden, J. [252], Mexico K000063063
Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195127
Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195128
Jun 24, 1905 Sharma, B.D. [167435], India K000005459
Jun 24, 1905 Buysman, M. [190] K000005471
Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [900], Thailand K000005481
Jun 24, 1905 Simpson, N.D. [5441], Egypt K000195091
Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195102
Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195110
Jun 24, 1905 Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000195120
Jun 24, 1905 Tate, R. [257(232)], Nicaragua K000195121
Jun 24, 1905 Harris, W. [11896], Jamaica K000195124
Jun 24, 1905 Sinclair, J. [s.n.] K000195139
Jun 24, 1905 Wallich, N. [2611B], India K000005460
Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005469
Jun 24, 1905 Vogel, E. [s.n.], Niger K000005484
Jun 24, 1905 Ingoldby, C.M. [414], Turkey K000195105
Jun 24, 1905 Sintenis, P. [s.n.], Puerto Rico K000195122
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [22623b], Indonesia K000005477
Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [1252], Thailand K000005480
Jun 24, 1905 Gardner, M.F. [1789], Brazil K000195118
Jun 24, 1905 Hu, S.Y. [5341], China K000005454
Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195111
Jun 24, 1905 Watt, G. [6281], India K000005486
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [26049], Iraq K000195089
Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [82], Austria K000195109
Jun 24, 1905 Wright, C.A. [s.n.] K000195108
Jun 24, 1905 Glaziou, A.F.M. [12098], Brazil K000195119
Jun 24, 1905 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [s.n.], Cambodia K000005485
Jun 24, 1905 Heldreich, T. von [s.n.], Greece K000195104
Jun 24, 1905 Dinsmore, J.E. [3106], Jordan K000195096
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [29401b], Indonesia K000005473
Jun 24, 1905 Hoyle, H.b. [s.n.], India K000005456
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195115
Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195133
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [21293b], Indonesia K000005475
Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1157], Philippines K000005464
Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Lebanon K000195095
Jun 24, 1905 Jameson, D. [152] K000005453
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [27962b], Indonesia K000005476
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000005448
Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005472
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195114
Jun 24, 1905 Berlandier, J.L. [2405-975], Mexico K000195131
Jun 24, 1905 St Vincent [36] K000005483
Jun 24, 1905 Britton, N.L. [1089], Trinidad & Tobago K000195123
Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005458
Jun 24, 1905 Loher, A. [4385], Philippines K000005466
Jun 24, 1905 Nafday, K.U.R. [159], India K000005482
Jun 24, 1905 Crisp, P. [171] K000195097
Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005457
Jun 24, 1905 Lévy, P. [5], Nicaragua K000195137
Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195134
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [37842b], Indonesia K000005474
Jun 24, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [14], Philippines K000005467
Jun 24, 1905 Mill, J.S. [s.n.], France K000195107
Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [487], India K000195136
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195101
Jun 24, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [483], India K000005487
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195113
Jun 24, 1905 Stapf, O. [s.n.] K000195093
Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195135
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [160S], Portugal K000195085
Jun 24, 1905 Bukasov, S. [392], Mexico K000005462
Jun 24, 1905 Bourgeau, E. [1447a], Spain K000005451
Jun 24, 1905 Taylor, P.M. [P357], Indonesia K000005478
Jun 24, 1905 Rottler, J.P. [s.n.], India K000005455
Jun 24, 1905 Pickersgill, B. [RO72-365], Brazil K000195117
Jun 24, 1905 Lakshnakara, M.C. [1362], Thailand K000005479
Jun 24, 1905 Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Portugal K000005450
Jun 24, 1905 Last, G.V.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195103
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195140
Jun 24, 1905 Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Japan K000005447
Jun 24, 1905 Burchell, W.J. [69942] K000195116
Jun 24, 1905 Lange, P.J. De [NF149], Australia K000195112
Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195138
Jun 24, 1905 Shabeta, J.R. [191] K000195092
Jun 24, 1905 Cuadra, A. [A1144], Malaysia K000005470
Jun 24, 1905 Haussknecht, H.C. [s.n.], Syria K000195094
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], Russian Federation K000005461
Jun 24, 1905 Heyde, E.T. [6360], Guatemala K000195132
Jun 24, 1905 Oldham, R. [343], Taiwan K000005449
Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1108], Philippines K000005465
Strachey, R. [8], India K000005452
s.coll [3380], Egypt K000005371
Marshall, J. [101], United Kingdom K000005383
s.coll [s.n.] K000005385
Chung, H.-.H. [2431], China K000005445
Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169240
Brummitt, R.K. [12408], Malawi K001158636
Starke [s.n.] K000005373
Egger, B. [496] K000005393
Herb Goodenough [15] K000005374
Meller, C.J. [s.n.] K001158635
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116571
Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169239
Sintenis, P.E.E. [2443], Puerto Rico K000005365
Simpson, N.D. [2147], Egypt K001152169
Newbould, J.G.B. [4411], Tanzania K001157735
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116569
Mesfin, T. [1753], Ethiopia K001156396
Dowson, W.J. [465], Kenya K001157739
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116572
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116567
Rodin, R.J. [2682], South Africa K001159333
Combs, R. [225], Cuba K000005367
s.coll [K220] K000005400
s.coll [s.n.] K000005378
Price, W.R. [460], Taiwan K000005446
Perumal, P. [21566], India K000005387
Welwitsch [6046], Angola K001029818
Mandon, G. [391], Bolivia K000005399
Huxley, P. [164], Tanzania K001157734
Nee, M. [34447], Brazil K000005390
Baron, R. [2294], Madagascar K001158936
Mwangangi, O.M. [1710], Kenya K001157738
Greenway, P.J. [11334], Tanzania K001157733
Licent, E. [892], China K000005444
Guzman C, U. [3041], Mexico K001160487
Baron, R. [4142], Madagascar K001158937
s.coll [5118], Egypt K000005386
Grimshaw, J.M. [94674], Tanzania K001157736
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116568
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611], India K001116570
Trapnell, C.G. [1458], Zambia K001158637
Edwards, S. [3810], Ethiopia K001156397
Prior, A. [s.n.] K000005391
Epenhuijsen, C.W. van [16], Nigeria K000005389
Herb Forster [s.n.] K000005368
Greenway, P.J. [13437], Tanzania K001157732
Maitland, T.D. [702], Uganda K001157740
Ward, C.J. [6210], South Africa K001159332
s.coll [s.n.] K000005375
Ekman, E.L. [H 11373], Dominican Republic K000005366
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K000005384
Hu, S.Y. [9025], Hong Kong K000005388
Curtis, J. [s.n.], France K000005379
Kisena [53], Tanzania K001157737
Nee, M. [16065], USA K000005392
s.coll [s.n.] K000005376
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pseudolycopersicum K001169843
Lycopersicon esculentum 17703.000
Hinton, G.B. [5813], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063061
Cope, T.A. [RBG 198], Great Britain Lycopersicon esculentum K000914297
Mexia, Y. [8941], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063065
Velázquez L., C. [173], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063066
Gaumer, G.F. [2272], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063064
Calzada, J.I. [1852], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063067

First published in Sp. Pl.: 185 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Cameron, E.K. (2021). Updated vascular flora and vegitation of the Noises islands, Hauraki Gulf Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 51-81.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.

Not accepted by

  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Lycopersicon esculentum.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • (1753) incl. var.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?cmd=get&src=cypricola/Cypricola015%5FHand%5F2020%5FRecords%2D1996%2D2019.pdf epublication.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Cameron, E.K. (2021). Updated vascular flora and vegitation of the Noises islands, Hauraki Gulf Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 51-81.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.J. 54: 500 (1917)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 69 (2005)
  • P.O.A. C: 356 (1895)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)
  • Syst. Bot. Monogr. 84 133 (2008).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/