1. Family: Dioscoreaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Dioscorea Plum. ex L.
      1. Dioscorea alata L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Trepadora
    [FWTA]

    Dioscoreaceae, J. Miège. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Glabrous climber with winged stems 10-25 ft. high
    Note
    Rarely flowering in our area and usually reproducing vegetatively
    Bulbils
    Bulbils developed in some forms
    Tubers
    Tubers annual, their shape, size and colour very variable according to the cultivars.
    [FTEA]

    Dioscoreaceae, E. Milne-Redhead. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Tuber replaced annually, normally cylindric, up to 6 cm. in diameter, descending vertically, but in some cultivars very diversely shaped, branched or expanded above, sometimes with lobes curved or spreading horizontally.
    Stem
    Twining stems 4-winged or -angled, up to 10 m. long, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or the lower alternate, glabrous; petiole up to 9(–10) cm. long; blade ovate with widely cordate almost hastate base, apically narrowed to an acute acumen, up to 12(–13) cm. long and 8(–10) cm. broad.
    Tubers
    Aerial tubers subglobose or irregularly and narrowly ovoid, up to 12 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences glabrous.
    Male
    Male ± 2 in the leaf-axils or forming axillary terminal panicles in the axils of bracts, spreading; axis zigzag, with the sessile flowers directed forwards and outwards; perianth subglobose, not opening widely, ±1.5 mm. across.
    Flowers
    Female 1 per leaf-axil, up to 21(–35) cm. long; perianth triangular-subglobose, ± 5 mm. across. Ovary glabrous. Male ± 2 in the leaf-axils or forming axillary terminal panicles in the axils of bracts, spreading; axis zigzag, with the sessile flowers directed forwards and outwards; perianth subglobose, not opening widely, ±1.5 mm. across.
    Female
    Female 1 per leaf-axil, up to 21(–35) cm. long; perianth triangular-subglobose, ± 5 mm. across. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Capsule as in fig. 1/4, p. 4, up to 3.5 cm. in diameter, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds winged all round.
    Habitat
    Cultivated for its edible tuber, and often persisting in secondary forest and bushland; the cited specimens from Uganda are all cultivated, as are those from Amani, but D. alata is likely to persist in these areas, as it is doing in Zanzibar; 0–1350 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T3 T8 U3 U4 Z tropical eastern Asia, now spread around the humid tropics of both Old and New World

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Christmas I., East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, Nicaragua, Niue, Northern Territory, Panamá, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

    Dioscorea alata L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2794], Cameroon K000109595
    Jan 1, 1992 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [nr 1790], Guyana K001171729
    Greenway, P.J. [5884], Tanzania K001147352
    Greenway, P.J. [5885], Tanzania K001147353
    Greenway, P.J. [1196], Tanzania K001147358
    Sandwith, N.Y. [1688], Trinidad & Tobago K001149292
    Sandwith, N.Y. [1688], Trinidad & Tobago K001149294
    Deighton, F.C. [1355], Sierra Leone K001145681
    Deighton, F.C. [2929], Sierra Leone K001145682
    Deighton, F.C. [2929], Sierra Leone K001145683
    Deighton, F.C. [1422], Sierra Leone K001145685
    Christophersen, E. [2801], Samoa K001145273
    Forrest, G. [6885], China K001141975
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago K001145281
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149268
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149269
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149270
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149271
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149272
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149273
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149274
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149275
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149276
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149277
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149278
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149279
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149280
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149281
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149282
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149283
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149284
    Williams, R.O. [s.n.], Grenada K001149285
    Williams, R.O. [10201], Trinidad & Tobago K001149288
    Trapnell, C.G. [1245], Zambia K001148226
    Trapnell, C.G. [1245], Zambia K001148227
    Trapnell, C.G. [1538], Zambia K001148228
    Trapnell, C.G. [1250], Zambia K001148229
    Trapnell, C.G. [1395], Zambia K001148230
    Clemens, J. [26455] K001144446
    Peal, J. [34], Uganda 17189.000
    Peal, J. [14], Uganda 17190.000
    Peal, J. [23], Uganda 17193.000
    Peal, J. [34], Uganda K001147348
    Peal, J. [34], Uganda K001147349
    Peal, J. [23], Uganda K001147350
    Peal, J. [14], Uganda K001147351
    Simmonds, N.W. [440] K001149291
    Thomas, A.S. [32], Ghana K001145688
    Thomas, A.S. [33], Ghana K001145689
    Thomas, A.S. [31], Ghana K001145690
    Thomas, A.S. [30], Ghana K001145691
    Thomas, A.S. [34], Ghana K001145692
    Thomas, A.S. [35], Ghana K001145693
    Thomas, A.S. [37], Ghana K001145694
    Thomas, A.S. [38], Ghana K001145695
    Thomas, A.S. [27], Ghana K001145696
    Thomas, A.S. [28], Ghana K001145698
    Thomas, A.S. [29], Ghana K001145699
    Thomas, A.S. [25], Ghana K001145700
    Thomas, A.S. [26], Ghana K001145701
    Harrison, S.G. [1745], Guyana K001150088
    Robertson, S.A. [3151], Seychelles K001148424
    Faulkner, H.G. [2859], Tanzania K001147356
    Faulkner, H.G. [2573], Tanzania K001147357
    Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148237
    Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001148238
    Faulkner, H.G. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148239
    Barber, C.A. [20364], India K001142722
    Dawe, M.T. [15], Angola K001148236
    Smith, A.C. [7499], Fiji K001145271
    Smith, A.C. [1712], Fiji K001145276
    Smith, A.C. [4709], Fiji K001145277
    Smith, A.C. [4054], Fiji K001145280
    Meijer, W. [7323], Indonesia K001144452
    Larsen, K. [8238], Thailand K000809740
    Larsen, K. [8472], Thailand K001144055
    Hansen, B. [12731], Thailand K000809741
    Powell, D.A. [s.n.], Christmas I. K001144448
    Degener, O. [5570], USA K001145275
    Degener, O. [15405], Fiji K001145278
    Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Reunion K001148417
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], India K001142736
    Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [3880], Sri Lanka K001142754
    Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [4185], Sri Lanka K001142755
    Jayasuriya, A.H.M. [3804], Sri Lanka K001142756
    Cadet, T. [4187], Reunion K001148414
    Cadet, T. [6010], Reunion K001148418
    Podzorski, A.C. [SMHI684] K001144856
    Broadway, W.E. [7890], Trinidad & Tobago K001149286
    Broadway, W.E. [3146], Trinidad & Tobago K001149289
    Broadway, W.E. [3149], Trinidad & Tobago K001149290
    Wilkin, P. [887], Thailand K000809748
    Wilkin, P. [T960], Thailand K000809749
    Wilkin, P. [T960], Thailand K000809750
    Wilkin, P. [T971], Thailand K000809751
    Wilkin, P. [1010], Thailand K000809753
    Wilkin, P. [999], Thailand K000809754
    Wilkin, P. [994], Thailand K000809755
    Wilkin, P. [1039], Thailand K000809756
    Wilkin, P. [1071], Thailand K000809757
    Wilkin, P. [1073], Thailand K000809758
    Wilkin, P. [1089], Thailand K000809759
    Wilkin, P. [1090], Thailand K000809760
    Luke, W.R.Q. [10064], Mozambique K001148225
    Lister [41], Venezuela K001150540
    A.H.G. [s.n.], India K001142718
    Put [4352], Thailand K000809738
    Put [1142], Thailand K000809739
    Put [1128], Thailand K001144040
    Put [2468], Thailand K001144047
    Put [2085], Thailand K001144050
    Put [4374], Thailand K001144053
    Heringer, E.P. [15594], Brazil K001150089
    Heringer, E.P. [15594], Brazil K001150090
    Loher, A. [5743], Philippines K001144853
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001143258
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.] K001145680
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], Nigeria K001145704
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], Mozambique K001148223
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001148224
    Burkill, I.H. [1538], Zambia K001148233
    Collins, D.J. [s.n.], Thailand K001171632
    Collins, D.J. [1497], Thailand K001144039
    Collins, D.J. [43], Thailand K001144046
    Collins, D.J. [1498], Thailand K001144051
    Collins, D.J. [1046], Thailand K001144052
    Collins, D.J. [1537], Thailand K001144056
    Collins, D.J. [43], Thailand K001144057
    Koorders, S.H. [27355B], Indonesia K001144450
    Koorders, S.H. [23894B], Indonesia K001144451
    Ledermann [13298], Micronesia K001145283
    Lace, J.H. [2706], Myanmar K001142749
    Lace, J.H. [4449], Myanmar K001142750
    Lace, J.H. [5455], Myanmar K001142751
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [2977], Madagascar K001148423
    Schomburgk, R.H. [s.n.], Dominican Republic K001149262
    Pierre, L. [s.n.] K001144045
    Pierre, L. [7003], Vietnam K001144059
    Pierre, L. [7002], Vietnam K001144061
    Poilane, E. [828], Vietnam K001144033
    Poilane, E. [828], Vietnam K001144034
    Eyma, P.J. [377], Indonesia K001144455
    Lau, S.K. [28339], China K001141973
    Bampton, S.S. [5], Belize K001149044
    Axelrod, F. [9183], Puerto Rico K000809768
    Axelrod, F. [9183], Puerto Rico K000809769
    Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [18575], Indonesia K000809762
    Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [81A], Indonesia K000809764
    Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [102], Indonesia K000809765
    Kostermans, A.J.G.H. [18015], Indonesia K001144447
    Middleton, D.J. [2342], Thailand K000809761
    Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K001145686
    Pételot, A. [5895], Vietnam K001144032
    Welw. [4044], Angola K001148235
    Irvine, F.R. [s.n.], Ghana K001145697
    Soleman, R. [7534], Tanzania K001147354
    Marmo, V. [14], Sierra Leone K001145684
    Fishlock, W.C. [s.n.], British Virgin Is. K000369744
    St John, H. [14125], French Polynesia K001145279
    Beusekom, C.F. [3768[a]], Thailand K000809743
    Beusekom, C.F. [3682], Thailand K000809744
    Beusekom, C.F. [4626], Thailand K000809746
    Beusekom, C.F. [3906], Thailand K000809747
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60131], Madagascar K001148419
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60131], Madagascar K001148420
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60105], Madagascar K001148426
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60138], Madagascar K001148427
    Wohlhauser, S. [SW60138], Madagascar K001148428
    Barthelat, F. [883], Mayotte K001148429
    Philippi [547], Philippines K001144851
    Haines, H.H. [5128], India K001142731
    Haines, H.H. [5128], India K001142732
    Haines, H.H. [704], India K001142734
    Haines, H.H. [5127], India K001142735
    Wang, F.T. [23621], China K001141977
    Crosby, C.S. [254], Tonga K001145284
    Sulit, M.D. [22491], Philippines K001144846
    Smeds, H. [1405], Ethiopia K001146627
    Smeds, H. [1404], Ethiopia K001146628
    Schäfer, P.A. [5598], French Polynesia K000809766
    Powell, T. [281], Samoa K001145285
    Charoenphol, C. [4575], Thailand K000809745
    Seemann, B.C. [627], Fiji K001145282
    Sintenis, P.E.E. [5412], Puerto Rico K001149260
    Sintenis, P.E.E. [4509], Puerto Rico K001149261
    Colchester [2359], Venezuela K001150541
    Colchester [2154], Venezuela K001150542
    Encarnación, F. [451 [?]], Peru K001150543
    Elbert, J. [2582], Indonesia K001144453
    Elbert, J. [1578], Indonesia K001144454
    Bateson, G. [123], Papua New Guinea K001145031
    Florence, J. [2899], French Polynesia K000809767
    Jones, B.L. [170], Malaysia K000809763
    Russell, D. [143], Myanmar K001142743
    Vogt, G.B. [BU-503], Myanmar K000809737
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148441
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148443
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 863], Madagascar K001148444
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 863], Madagascar K001148445
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 862], Madagascar K001148446
    Randriamboavonjy, T. [RTI 864], Madagascar K001148448
    Ducloux, P. [67], China K001141976
    Murray, H.B. [s.n.], St. Lucia K001149267
    Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [600], Guyana K001150087
    Grant, M.L. [4616], French Polynesia K001145272
    Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001142752
    Thwaites, G.H.K. [s.n.], Sri Lanka K001142753
    Clarke, C.B. [34214] K001142733
    Balansa, B. [299], Vietnam K001144036
    Balansa, B. [4723], Vietnam K001144037
    Balansa, B. [4723], Vietnam K001144060
    Ramos, M. [12546], Philippines K001144855
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19918], Thailand K000809742
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1528A], Thailand K001144048
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1528 B], Thailand K001144049
    Merrill, E.D. [3376], Philippines K001144847
    Merrill, E.D. [810], Philippines K001144852
    Merrill, E.D. [922] K001144854
    s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369745
    s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369746
    s.coll [374], British Virgin Is. K000369747
    s.coll [R20842], India K001142719
    s.coll [1699], India K001142720
    s.coll [30147], India K001142721
    s.coll [17758], India K001142723
    s.coll [26523], India K001142724
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001142726
    s.coll [s.n.] K001142727
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001142728
    s.coll [392], India K001142730
    s.coll [1567], India K001142737
    s.coll [s.n.] K001142742
    s.coll [5108] K001142744
    s.coll [H9 5108g] K001142745
    s.coll [5106], Nepal K001142746
    s.coll [5108] K001142747
    s.coll [5108] K001142748
    s.coll [574], Singapore K001143259
    s.coll [s.n.] K001144035
    s.coll [s.n.], Vietnam K001144038
    s.coll [s.n.] K001144054
    s.coll [1982], Philippines K001144848
    s.coll [3430], Philippines K001144849
    s.coll [3430], Philippines K001144850
    s.coll [31920] K001145032
    s.coll [82], Guam K001145274
    s.coll [13], Gambia K001145679
    s.coll [10], United Kingdom K001145702
    s.coll [17], Nigeria K001145703
    s.coll [16], United Kingdom K001146418
    s.coll [4030], Angola K001148234
    s.coll [261] K001148415
    s.coll [119] K001149240
    s.coll [118] K001149241
    s.coll [116] K001149242
    s.coll [114] K001149243
    s.coll [113] K001149244
    s.coll [111] K001149245
    s.coll [126] K001149246
    s.coll [123] K001149247
    s.coll [112] K001149248
    s.coll [122] K001149249
    s.coll [121] K001149250
    s.coll [120] K001149251
    s.coll [115] K001149252
    s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149253
    s.coll [34861], Puerto Rico K001149254
    s.coll [31919], Puerto Rico K001149255
    s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149256
    s.coll [s.n.], Puerto Rico K001149257
    s.coll [s.n.], Puerto Rico K001149258
    s.coll [31920], Puerto Rico K001149259
    s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149263
    s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149264
    s.coll [233-17], United Kingdom K001149265
    s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001149266
    s.coll [M279], Guyana K001150082
    s.coll [F3049], Guyana K001150083
    s.coll [6409], Guyana K001150084
    s.coll [9870-2] K001150085
    s.coll [[2748]], Brazil K001150091
    Rock, J.F.C. [1723], Thailand K001144058
    Christenhusz, M.J.M. [5079], Chile K001150738
    André, É.F. [s.n.] K001150538
    André, É.F. [267], Colombia K001150539
    Caddick, L.R. [321], Madagascar K001148425
    unknown [s.n.] K000696819
    Quintas, F.J.D. [s.n.], Sao Tome and Principe K001146417
    Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144041
    Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144042
    Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144043
    Du, N.V. [HNK 2240], Vietnam K001144044
    Burchell [3623], Brazil K001150086
    Davis [1208], Madagascar K001148421
    Christiansen, M.S. [3232], Solomon Is. K001145286
    Christiansen, M.S. [3205], Solomon Is. K001145287
    Christiansen, M.S. [71], Solomon Is. K001145288
    Buttin, F.C. [13053], Trinidad & Tobago K000809770
    Buttin, F.C. [13053], Trinidad & Tobago K001149293
    Herb Griffith [5548], India K001142739
    Ducloux. P. [470], China K001141974
    Jenkins, E.E. [s.n.], India K001142738
    Herb. Kerr, A.F.G. [21077], Laos K001144063
    Ochse [s.n.], Indonesia K001144449
    Metzer [K2], Togo K001145687
    Hasegawa, T. [33], Tanzania K001147355
    Rajaonah, M.T. [MT 300], Madagascar K001148442
    Rajaonah, M.T. [MT 293], Madagascar K001148447
    Rodrigues [s.n.] K001148416
    Stiefel, S.L. [63], Madagascar K001148422
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 303], Madagascar K001148449
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 303], Madagascar K001148450
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 302], Madagascar K001148451
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 302], Madagascar K001148452
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 301], Madagascar K001148453
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 304], Madagascar K001148454
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 306], Madagascar K001148455
    Rajanoah, M.T. [MT 312], Madagascar K001148456
    Ramcharan, E.K. [372], Trinidad & Tobago K001149287
    Dash, J.S. [[391/76/37/]], Guyana K001150080
    Dash, J.S. [[391/76/57]], Guyana K001150081
    Gooding, H.J. [35/57] K001150757
    Gooding, H.J. [01/56] K001150758
    Gooding, H.J. [19/57] K001150759
    Gooding, H.J. [14/57] K001150760
    Gooding, H.J. [38/57] K001150761
    Gooding, H.J. [39/57] K001150762
    Gooding, H.J. [03/56] K001150763
    Buchholz, Cameroon Dioscorea colocasiifolia K000098378

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1033 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Wilkin, P. & Thapyai, C. (2009). Flora of Thailand 10(1): 1-140. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Govaerts, R., Wilkin, P. & Saunders, R.M.K. (2007). World Checklist of Dioscoreales. Yams and their allies: 1-65. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Samanta, A.K. (2006). The genus Dioscorea L. in Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas - a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 30: 555-563.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Miège in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 32: 144 (1952)
    • Miège, Contrib. Dioscor. 94 (1952).
    • Burkill in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 15: 380 (1939)
    • Prain & Burkill in Ann Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 14: 308 (1936)
    • Knuth in Engl., Pflanzenr. Dioscoreac. 4, 43: 265 (1924)
    • F.T.A. 7: 417
    • Sp. Pl. 1033 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (2016). Flora of Japan IVb: 1-335. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Bhattacharya, R.P., Pal, D.C. & Pati, B.R. (2014). A sytematic census of monocot climbers of Bihar anf Jharkhand states Indian Journal of Forestry 37: 317-324.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 192 (1969).
    • Miège in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 152 (1968).
    • Burkill in FL Males., ser. 1, 4: 330 (1951).
    • Burkill in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 15: 380 (1939)
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 382 (1936).
    • R. Knuth in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 43: 265 (1924).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 417 (1898).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1033 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0