1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Arachis L.
      1. Arachis hypogaea L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Brazil.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual erect or straggling herb ± 30 cm. long.
    Stem
    Stems at first pilose, later glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 4-foliolate; leaflets obovate or elliptic, 1–7 cm. long, 0.7–3.2 cm. wide, rounded or emarginate and mucronate at the apex, narrowly rounded to the base, glabrous, or sparsely pilose beneath, ciliate; free part of petiole 1.5–7 cm. long; petiolules 1–2 mm. long; stipules 1.5– 4 cm. long; free part linear-lanceolate, very acute, 0.6–3.2 cm. long, ciliate.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, apparently solitary and stalked; primary bracts ovate-lanceolate, 1–1.4 cm. long, 4–5 mm. wide, biapiculate; secondary bracts similar but bifid.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle 0.2–4 cm. long, pilose.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, mostly with red nerves, 0.7–1.3 cm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8–9.
    Fruits
    Pods 2–6 cm. long, 1–1.5 cm. wide, the gynophore becoming 1–20 cm. long.
    Seeds
    Seeds irregularly ovoid, 1–2 cm. long and ± two-thirds the length in diameter.
    Figures
    Fig. 63, p. 441.
    Habitat
    Occasionally found as an escape
    Distribution
    probably originally native to Brazil, but now very widely cultivated throughout the tropics and extensively in certain parts of East Africa, particularly the Lake Province of Tanganyika (Bukoba, etc.) and Tabora Districtthe attempts to cultivate the plant as a very major production undertaking at Kongwa (T5) and Nachingwea (T8) failed T1 T3 T4 T7 T8 U1 U4 Z
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Cultigen not known in the wild
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Annual, Not climbing, Herb
    Vernacular
    Alune Americane, Alune Depemynt, Amendoim, Arachide, Aracide, Arakhis Podzemnyi, Cacachuet, Cacahouete, Cacahuete, Cacahuetes, Earthnut, Erdnuss, Erfyndygy, Eryongok, Goober, Ground Nut, Groundnut, Jordnot, Khuasan, Kitaiski Boby, Kitaiskie Oreshki, Maapa
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Annual, erect or straggling herb c. 30 cm long.
    Stem
    Stems at first pilose, later glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 4-foliolate; leaflets 1–7 × 0.7–3.2 cm, obovate or elliptic, rounded or emarginate and mucronate at the apex, narrowly rounded to the base, glabrous, or sparsely pilose beneath, ciliate; free part of petiole 1.5–7 cm long; petiolules 1–2 mm long; stipules 1.5–4 cm long, free part 0.6–3.2 cm long, linear-lanceolate, very acute, ciliate.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, apparently solitary and stalked; primary bracts 10–14 × 4–5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, biapiculate; secondary bracts similar but 2-fid.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle 0.2–4 cm long, pilose.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, usually with red nerves, 7–13 mm long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8–9.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2–6 × 1–1.5 cm, the gynophore becoming 1–20 cm long.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2 cm long and c. two-thirds the length in diameter, irregularly ovoid.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Domestic, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil North, Brazil West-Central

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Arachis hypogaea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1995 Guareco, I. [161], Bolivia K000731401
    Mendoza, M. [1392], Bolivia K000731400
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5810], Nepal K001122218
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122214
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122215
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810], India K001122216
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5810] K001122217
    Brandyge, J. [32429], Ecuador K000731402
    Schinini, A. [24221], Argentina Arachis hypogaea subsp. fastigiata K000731431

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 741 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. in T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. in T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
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    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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    Sources

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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0