1. Family: Anacardiaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Anacardium L.
      1. Anacardium occidentale L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Trinidad to S. Tropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Anacardiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Vernacular
    The Cashew tree
    Ecology
    Widely cultivated and commonly naturalized in the bush, chiefly in coastal districts.
    [FTEA]

    Anacardiaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 10 m. high; branchlets rather thick, glabrous, striate.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long, ± 2 mm. broad at the base, semicylindric; lamina broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, 6.5–18 cm. long, 3.8–10 cm. broad, obtuse to rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous and shining; midrib not raised above, very prominent beneath; lateral nerves 9–14 pairs, slightly raised.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 mm. long, 2–5 mm. broad, ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish puberulous outside, glabrous inside.
    Calyx
    Calyx-segments 4–5 mm. long, 1–2.2 mm. broad, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish puberulous outside.
    Corolla
    Petals linear-lanceolate, 7–13 mm. long, 1–1.7 mm. broad, yellowish white to pale reddish, puberulous on both faces.
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal in length, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.
    Ovary
    Ovary of the bisexual flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style ± 4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit on a very thickened fleshy pedicel, kidney-shaped, laterally umbilicate, 2–3 cm. long, 1.5–2.5 cm. broad, greenish yellow.
    Seeds
    Seed kidney-shaped, with a reddish brown testa, 2 large white cotyledons and a small embryo.
    Habitat
    Old cultivations; 0–1400 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K7 P T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 Z widely cultivated and readily naturalized in the coastal belt, relatively rare inland but tried in some placesnative of tropical America
    [FZ]

    Anacardiaceae, Rosette Fernandes and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    A shrub or tree up to 10 m. tall, with rather thick glabrous striate branchlets.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long and c. 2 mm. broad at the base, hemicylindric; lamina slightly discolorous, shining, 6·5–18 × 3·8–10 cm., broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, obtuse, rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous; midrib not raised above, very prominent below, lateral nerves 9–17 pairs, slightly raised, reticulation slightly visible.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels c. 0·5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 × 2–5 mm., ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish-puberulous outside, glabrous inside.
    Calyx
    Calyx segments 4–5 × 1–2·2 mm., lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish-puberulous outside.
    Corolla
    Petals yellowish-white to pale reddish, 7–13 × 1–1·7 mm., linear-lanceolate, puberulous on both faces.
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.
    Pistil
    Ovary of the hermaphrodite flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style c. 4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit greenish-yellow, 2–3 × 1·5–2·5 × 1·5 cm., laterally umbilicate, with a very thickened and fleshy pedicel, 6–7·5 × 4·5 cm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Anacardium occidentale L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2003 Wood, J.R.I. [11386], Bolivia K000035357
    Jan 1, 1984 Machado, O. [221], Brazil K000537404 isotype
    Jan 1, 1984 Machado, O. [205], Goiás K000537405 isotype
    Harley, R.M. [10327], Brazil 7393.000
    Zappi, D.C. [1287], Mato Grosso K000578996
    Zappi, D.C. [1293], Mato Grosso K000578997
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 990], Malaysia K001110522
    Sasaki, D. [2027], Mato Grosso K000578247
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 990], Myanmar K001110517
    Machado, O. [205], Goiás K000974402 isotype
    Machado, O. [207], Goiás K000974403 isotype
    Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 990], Bangladesh K001110518
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110515
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110516
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110519
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110520
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110521
    Jul 1, 1983 Gardner [s.n.], Brazil Anacardium occidentale var. gardneri K000537403 holotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 383 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Kokwaro, J.O. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Anacardiaceae: 1-59.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 156.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 443
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Kokwaro, J.O. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Anacardiaceae: 1-59.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. & A. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 551 (1966).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 208 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 21 (1961).
    • van der Veken in 9: 7 (1960).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 466 (1958).
    • Exell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 2: 96 (1954).
    • Dale, Introd. Trees Ug.: 7 (1953).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 32 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 119, fig. (1949).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (2): 175, fig. 86 (1921).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 443 (1868).
    • L., Sp. Pl. 383 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0