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This species is accepted, and its native range is Trinidad to S. Tropical America.

[FWTA]

Anacardiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Vernacular
The Cashew tree
Ecology
Widely cultivated and commonly naturalized in the bush, chiefly in coastal districts.

[FTEA]

Anacardiaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or tree up to 10 m. high; branchlets rather thick, glabrous, striate.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long, ± 2 mm. broad at the base, semicylindric; lamina broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, 6.5–18 cm. long, 3.8–10 cm. broad, obtuse to rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous and shining; midrib not raised above, very prominent beneath; lateral nerves 9–14 pairs, slightly raised.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 mm. long, 2–5 mm. broad, ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish puberulous outside, glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-segments 4–5 mm. long, 1–2.2 mm. broad, lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish puberulous outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals linear-lanceolate, 7–13 mm. long, 1–1.7 mm. broad, yellowish white to pale reddish, puberulous on both faces.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal in length, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary of the bisexual flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style ± 4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on a very thickened fleshy pedicel, kidney-shaped, laterally umbilicate, 2–3 cm. long, 1.5–2.5 cm. broad, greenish yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed kidney-shaped, with a reddish brown testa, 2 large white cotyledons and a small embryo.
Habitat
Old cultivations; 0–1400 m.
Distribution
K4 K7 P T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 Z widely cultivated and readily naturalized in the coastal belt, relatively rare inland but tried in some placesnative of tropical America

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 900 m.; Amazonia, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Arbolito, árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree up to 10 m high; branchlets glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm long; blade broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, 6.5–18 x 3.8–10 cm, obtuse to retuse at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, shiny, leathery; midrib and 7–14 pairs of lateral nerves very prominent beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in 10–25 cm long puberulous panicles; bracts 4–10 mm long; sepals 3–5 mm long, puberulous; petals 7–13 mm long, cream to pale reddish, puberulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on a very thickened fleshy pedicel, kidney-shaped, 2–3 cm long; seed kidney-shaped.
Distribution
S2, 3 native of tropical America, now widely cultivated throughout the tropics mainly for its edible seeds (cashew nuts).
Ecology
Coast
Vernacular
Bibbo (Somali), cashew (English)

[FZ]

Anacardiaceae, Rosette Fernandes and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or tree up to 10 m. tall, with rather thick glabrous striate branchlets.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous; petiole 1–3 cm. long and c. 2 mm. broad at the base, hemicylindric; lamina slightly discolorous, shining, 6·5–18 × 3·8–10 cm., broadly obovate to oblong-obovate, obtuse, rounded or emarginate at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous; midrib not raised above, very prominent below, lateral nerves 9–17 pairs, slightly raised, reticulation slightly visible.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence 10–25 cm. long, with reddish to blackish ascendent puberulous branches; pedicels c. 0·5 mm. long, puberulous; bracts 5–10 × 2–5 mm., ovate-lanceolate, densely greyish-puberulous outside, glabrous inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx segments 4–5 × 1–2·2 mm., lanceolate to oblong-ovate, greyish-puberulous outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellowish-white to pale reddish, 7–13 × 1–1·7 mm., linear-lanceolate, puberulous on both faces.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, 1–2 with filaments 6–9 mm. long, the others with filaments 2–3 mm. long and sterile anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary of the hermaphrodite flowers obliquely obovoid, puberulous; style c. 4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit greenish-yellow, 2–3 × 1·5–2·5 × 1·5 cm., laterally umbilicate, with a very thickened and fleshy pedicel, 6–7·5 × 4·5 cm.

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[FSOM]
Use
The seeds must be roasted before eating. Also the fleshy pedicel (cashew apple) is edible, and the fruit-wall yields a valuable oil.

Native to:

Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Malaya, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Puerto Rico, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Anacardium occidentale L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2003 Wood, J.R.I. [11386], Bolivia K000035357
Jan 1, 1984 Machado, O. [221], Brazil K000537404 isotype
Jan 1, 1984 Machado, O. [205], Goiás K000537405 isotype
Harley, R.M. [10327], Brazil 7393.000
Zappi, D.C. [1287], Mato Grosso K000578996
Zappi, D.C. [1293], Mato Grosso K000578997
Porter, G. [Cat. no. 990], Malaysia K001110522
Sasaki, D. [2027], Mato Grosso K000578247
Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 990], Myanmar K001110517
Machado, O. [205], Goiás K000974402 isotype
Machado, O. [207], Goiás K000974403 isotype
Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 990], Bangladesh K001110518
s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110515
s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110516
s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110519
s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110520
s.coll. [Cat. no. 990] K001110521
Jul 1, 1983 Gardner [s.n.], Brazil Anacardium occidentale var. gardneri K000537403 holotype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 383 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Chayamarit, K. (2010). Flora of Thailand 10(3): 265-329. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kokwaro, J.O. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Anacardiaceae: 1-59.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1974-1978). Flora Malesiana 8: 1-577. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 156.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 443

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Chayamarit, K. (2010). Flora of Thailand 10(3): 265-329. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kokwaro, J.O. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Anacardiaceae: 1-59.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • R. & A. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 551 (1966).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 208 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 21 (1961).
  • van der Veken in 9: 7 (1960).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 466 (1958).
  • Exell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 2: 96 (1954).
  • Dale, Introd. Trees Ug.: 7 (1953).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 32 (1949).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 119, fig. (1949).
  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (2): 175, fig. 86 (1921).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 443 (1868).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 383 (1753).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0