1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Brunfelsia Plum. ex L.
      1. Brunfelsia americana L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Caribbean to N. Venezuela.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree to 5(6) m high, with slender branches, the lower ones virgate, the upper ones slightly spreading, twigs sparsely appressed hairy at the ends;
    Leaves
    Leaves often crowded on short side shoots, chartaceous or firmly coriaceous, large, elliptic-ovate to obovate, entire, ± glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent beneath;
    Flowers
    Flowers commonly solitary, terminal or at the ends of lateral branches, occasionally a few flowers in terminal clusters;
    Calyx
    Calyx narrowly campanulate to barrel-shaped, lobed almost halfway;
    Corolla
    Corolla very fragrant especially at night, white changing to yellowish-white or light yellow, but green or greenish-white on the tube and purplish at the centre, with a tube to 9 cm and a hairy spreading limb to 6.5 cm across;
    Ovary
    Ovary and style base hairy.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow to orange, to 2 cm in diameter, ± globose, mucronate, glabrous
    Distribution
    Mozambique Originally from tropical America (native to the Antilles). Zambia Zimbabwe
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 10 m.; Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Arbusto
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “in America meridionali”, in Plumier, Nov. Pl. Amer.: 12, t. 22 (1703)!, lecto. designated by Howard in Fl. Lesser Antilles, 6: 270 (1989), as Brunsfelsia [icon.] [ see also Knapp in Jarvis et al., Regnum Veget., 127: 26 (1993) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 362 (2007)]
    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees 1.5–3(–10) m tall.
    Indumentum
    All vegetative and floral parts pubescent on young parts becoming pilose with eglandular- and glandular-headed branched hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves coriaceous, often glossy, light green, elliptic, obovate, ovate to lanceolate, 2.1–5.5(–11) × 1–4(–5) cm, bases cuneate, often decurrent, margins entire, apices acute, mucronate or obtuse, prominently veined beneath, both surfaces glabrescent or pilose, denser beneath and on the veins and midribs; petioles 2–6(–10) mm long, densely pilose to glabrescent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1-flowered, terminal or axillary, sessile, occasionally with very short peduncles; pedicels erect, 2–7(–15) mm long, pilose, subtended by obovate pilose bracts 1–2.5 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate or campanulate, 6–7 × 4.3–6 mm, with five acute and often unequal broadly ovate or triangular lobes 0.7–2.5 × 1–2.5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla white or green, fading to yellow, hypocrateriform, sweetly fragrant, tube cylindrical, 3.5–6 cm long and 1.5–3 mm wide basally broadening to 2.5–5 mm above, puberulous externally, terminating in five broadly ovate spreading rounded lobes 0.9–2.4 × 1–2 cm, with crenate margins; overall flower diameter 3–4.3 cm with throat 7–8 mm wide, not constricted
    Stamens
    Stamens usually included, occasionally two lateral anthers visible in corolla throat; filaments lower posterior pair free for 7.5–11 mm, upper lateral pair free for 11–13 mm; anthers oblong, medifixed, 2.5–3 × 1.5–3 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, ± 2.5 × 2 mm, glabrous; disc smooth; style 39–50 mm long, usually included; stigma 1.3–1.8 × 1–1.8 mm, often visible in corolla throat. Fruit an orange or yellow globose capsule, 1.5–2 cm diameter, thick-walled, smooth, splitting from the apex into two fleshy valves, base subtended by persistent calyx with calyx lobes eventually becoming dry and reflexed
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, light to dark brown, obovoid to deltoid, 3–5 × 2–2.5 mm, irregular and angular
    Figures
    Fig 2/7–9, p 19
    Ecology
    Cultivated, sometimes an escape in gardens and on roadsides; ± 1220 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This is commonly known as ‘Lady of the Night’ because of its strong night-time fragrance; the flowers are apparently pollinated by night-flying moths.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T5 T6 Range: Originally from the West Indian islands, also found in Zambia, Mozambique and Zimbabwe

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Mozambique, Tanzania, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Brunfelsia americana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.Z. 8(4): 5 (2005).
    • Fieldiana Bot., n.s. No. 39: 1 (1998)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 161 (1998)
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 475 (1979)
    • U.O.P.Z.: 157 (1949)
    • DC., Prodr. 10: 200 (1846)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/