1. Family: Cannaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Canna L.
      1. Canna indica L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Cannaceae, J.M. Lock. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

    Habit
    Upright herb usually 1-1.5 m. tall from a horizontal branching rhizome.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade narrowly ovate to narrowly elliptic, ± 60 × 25 cm., base rounded to cuneate, gradually attenuate to the sheath, apex acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence racemose, usually simple, but sometimes branched later, bearing single or paired flowers.
    Bracts
    Bracts broadly obovate, 0.9-2 × 1 cm.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate, acute, 1-1.5 × 0.4-0.9 cm.
    Corolla
    Corolla 4-5 cm. long, the lowermost 1 cm. fused into a tube, the lobes free; lobes 3-4 × 0.3-0.7 cm., usually red but sometimes with yellow markings.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes usually 3, spathulate, 4-6 × 1-1.5 cm., reddish, fused at the base, apex acute or emarginate. Labellum usually red above, yellow with red markings below, 4-5 × 0.6-1 cm., narrowly oblong, apex emarginate.
    Stamens
    Stamen 4-5 cm. long, petaloid portion involute; anther 0.7-1 cm. long, adnate to the sterile part for one-third of its length.
    Style
    Style 4-5 cm. long, reddish or yellowish.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, 2-3 cm. long, covered outside with soft spines, opening irregularly.
    Seeds
    Seeds spherical, smooth, very dark brown, ± 0.5 cm. in diameter.
    Habitat
    Widespread in areas of high rainfall in disturbed places, roadsides, outskirts of villages, or in moist sites in drier areas; usually not far from human habitation; 0-2500 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 Z native of South America but now pantropicaL.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 2620 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FWTA]

    Cannaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Herb 3-4 ft. high
    Flowers
    Scarlet or orange-red flowers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cook Is., East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Canna indica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2014 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001055631
    Jan 1, 2004 Fendler, A. [1492], Venezuela K000574253 neotype
    Jan 1, 2004 Paraguay K000574271
    Jan 1, 2004 Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001055627
    Jan 1, 2004 s.coll. [6622], India K000906582 neotype
    Jan 1, 2004 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000906583 neotype
    Jan 20, 1998 Buzato, S. [27194], Brazil K001055619
    Jan 1, 1983 Hill, S.R. [12850], Brazil K001055618
    Jan 1, 1979 Lindeman, J.C. [2835], Brazil K001055632
    Jan 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [17277], Brazil K001055621
    Jan 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [17277], Brazil K001055622
    Jan 1, 1978 Isabelle, M. [s.n.], Brazil K001055635
    Jan 1, 1978 Weir, J. [211], Brazil K001055625
    Jan 1, 1978 Weir, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001055624
    Jan 1, 1976 Lindeman, J.C. [3118], Brazil K001055633
    Jan 1, 1976 Lehmann, F.C. [5735], Colombia K000574251 syntype
    Jan 1, 1976 Lehmann, F.C. [5735], Colombia K000574252 syntype
    Jan 1, 1976 Paraguay K000574270
    Jan 1, 1976 Parodi, D. [63], Brazil K001055628
    Jan 1, 1976 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001055629
    Jan 1, 1970 Smith, H.H. [2320], Colombia K000574250 syntype
    Jan 1, 1970 Trail, J.W. [805], Brazil K001055638
    Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4477], Brazil K001055626
    31716.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [625], Uganda 20334.000
    Wild, H. [27425], Zimbabwe 18169.000
    Milliken, W. [2389], Brazil K001055623
    Paraguay K000574269
    Paraguay K000574268
    Agra, M.F. [1190], Brazil K001055620
    Heyde [4290], Guatemala K000574260
    Burchell, W.J. [3277], Brazil K001055630
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6621], Myanmar K001124330
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13236], Brazil K001055636
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [14328], Brazil K001055637
    Cunningham [s.n.], Brazil K001055634
    Buzato, S. [27194], Brazil K001055617
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124325
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124326
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124327
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124328
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124329
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6621] K001124331

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
    • Serviss, B.E., Peck, J.H. & Graves, T.A. (2014). The first naturalised occurance of the Cannaceae family in the Arkansas (U.S.A.) flora, with additional new and noteworthy Angiosperm records from the state Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 637-639.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Maas-van de Kamer, H. & Maas, P.J.M. (2008). The Cannaceae of the world Blumea 53: 247-318.
    • de las Mercedes Ciciarelli, M. & Rolleri, C.H. (2008). Morfología, taxonomía y caracterización de siete especies neotropicales del genero Canna (Cannaceae, Zingiberales) Botanica Complutensis 32: 157-184.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2008). Flora of Thailand 9(2): 91-188. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Tanaka, N., Koyama, T. & Murata, J. (2005). The flowering plants of Mt. Popa, central Myanmar - Results of Myanmar-Japanese joint expeditions, 2000-2004 Makinoa 5: 1-102.
    • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1979). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 1: 1-495. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Morton, W. Afr. Lilies & Orchids 52, fig. 62.
    • Sp. Pl. 1 (1763)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Serviss, B.E., Peck, J.H. & Graves, T.A. (2014). The first naturalised occurance of the Cannaceae family in the Arkansas (U.S.A.) flora, with additional new and noteworthy Angiosperm records from the state Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 637-639.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Maas-van de Kamer, H. & Maas, P.J.M. (2008). The Cannaceae of the world Blumea 53: 247-318.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Packer, J.E. (1974). Ascension Handbook. A concise guide to Ascension Island South Atlantic ed. 2 Packer, Georgetown.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 79 (1968).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0