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  1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Corchorus L.
      1. Corchorus olitorius L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Tiliaceae, C. Whitehouse, M. Cheek, S. Andrews & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

    Habit
    Annual herb to 2.5 m, mainly glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves elliptic to narrowly elliptic, oblong-ovate or ovate, chartaceous, 4.5–14 cm long, 1–5 cm wide, margins serrate with 2 basal serrations prolonged into 2 setae up to 2.3 cm long, rounded at base, acute to acuminate, prominently nerved above and beneath, with setaceous hairs; petioles 1.4–5 cm long, covered with setaceous hairs on upper surface; stipule 0.5–1.6 cm long, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of 1–2(–3)-flowered fascicles; peduncles up to 2 mm, glabrous; pedicels up to 2 mm; bracts up to 3 mm long, glabrous.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, 5–8.5 mm long, 1.5–3 mm wide, ciliate at the basal margin.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, 5–7 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, pale yellow, oblanceolate, with a short ciliate claw at the base; stamens ∞; ovary cylindric, minutely setulose, to 3.5 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsule cylindric, 10-ribbed, straight or slightly curved on erect pedicels, 2–8 cm long, 0.4–0.7 cm wide, splitting into 5 valves, tapering to a beak.
    Seeds
    Seeds angular, 1.5–2 mm long, irregularly ribbed, black.
    Figures
    Fig. 18/10 (fruit, p. 103).
    Habitat
    Swampy grassland and other moist areas, weed of cultivation; 30–1400 m
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 pantropical
    [FWTA]

    Tiliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A more or less glabrous herb, often woody at the base
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow
    Ecology
    Cultivated or subspontaneous
    Note
    A common form has laciniate leaves.
    [FZ]

    Tiliaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Coarse erect annual up to 2 m. tall; young branches somewhat angular or sulcate, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 3–10 × 2–5 cm., ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, thin-textured, apex acute, margin serrate or serrate-crenate with the two lowest serrations prolonged into elongated setaceous appendages c. 1 cm. long, rounded at the base, glabrous on both surfaces or setulose on the nerves beneath; petiole up to 5 cm. long, pubescent on the upper side; stipules c. 1 cm. long, setaceous, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of small 2–3-flowered cymes opposite the upper leaves; peduncles very short, c. 1 mm. long, glabrous; pedicels 1–2 mm. long; bracts c. 5 mm. long, setaceous, glabrous.
    Calyx
    Sepals c. 7 mm. long, linear, thin-textured, bluntly caudate at the apex, glabrous.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, c. 7 mm. long, oblanceolate, with a short ciliate claw at the base.
    Pistil
    Ovary clasped at the base by a cupular annulus c. 0·5 mm. long with somewhat undulate margin. Ovary cylindric, 10-ribbed, very minutely setulose and glandular, 5-locular, many-ovuled.
    Stamens
    Stamens c. 20.
    Fruits
    Capsule 1–8 cm. long, cylindric, appressed to the stem, straight or slightly curved, somewhat torulose, 10-ribbed, 5-valved, with a straight undivided beak c. 1·2 cm. long and inner surface of valves transversely septate.
    Seeds
    Seeds blackish, c. 2·3 × 2 mm., angular.
    [FWTA]
    Use
    One of the plants which yield jute.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South China Sea, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Chad, Cuba, Cyprus, Egypt, Fiji, Haiti, Iraq, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Libya, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Peru, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Windward Is., Yemen

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Corchorus olitorius L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [162], Namibia K000450341
    May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9641], Cameroon K000026387
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9464], Cameroon K000094593
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9551], Cameroon K000094592
    unknown [471], Gambia K000425880
    Coradin, L. [5967], Brazil K001209664
    Vogel [119], Niger K000242058
    Vogel [119], Niger K000242059
    Kotschy [162], Niger K000242057
    Kotschy [145], Niger K000425882 Unknown type material
    Bové [315], Gambia K000425881
    Thompson, S.A. [1755], Cameroon K000094594
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110930
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110931
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], Myanmar K001110932
    Glaziou, A. [15847], Brazil K001209663
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110933
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110934
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110935
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110936
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110937
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072], Bangladesh K001110938

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 529 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
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    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
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    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
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    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
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    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
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    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Bot. 91.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 262

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.
    • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Browicz, K. (1981). Flora Iranica 148: 1-15. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

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    Sources

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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/