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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia to Arabian Peninsula, Macaronesia, N. & S. Africa. It is used as animal food and a medicine.
Plantago major

[FTEA]

Plantaginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
An extremely variable, usually robust, glabrous or pubescent herb, with short stout erect stem and numerous adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves borne in a rosette, spirally arranged; blade ovate, elliptic or rarely rounded, (1-)10- 20(-30) cm. long. (0.7-)5-9.5(-17) cm. wide, rounded at the apex, entire, sinuate or irregularly toothed, 3-9-nerved at the base, abruptly narrowed at the base into a petiole usually ± equalling the blade, 1-20 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences spicate, the spikes nearly always cylindric, almost invariably simple, (0.5)10-15(-70) cm. long; peduncles (l-)7-15(-40) cm. long; bracts 1-2.5 mm. long, acute, brownish with a brown keel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals broadly elliptic to rounded, 1.5-2 mm. long and wide, keeled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish- or yellowish-white, 2-4 mm. long; lobes elliptic-ovate, ovate or narrowly triangular, 1-1.25 mm. long, obtuse or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers at first lilac, later whitish or yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose or subconic, 2-3 mm. long, 3-34-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown to dark brown or olivaceous with lighter belt on back, ellipsoidal or angular, 1-1.7 mm. long, 0.8 mm. wide, the ventral side more convex than the dorsal side; hilum lighter.
Figures
Fig. 1/1, 2.
Habitat
Grassy river-banks; 1665 m.
Distribution
K4 ranging naturally throughout Europe and northern and central Asia, but now naturalized throughout most of the world

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
chiracru, chiracu, llantén

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 100 - 2600 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FZ]

Plantaginaceae, G. Lehmann. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb, very variable, usually robust, glabrous or pubescent, growing with a short straight erect stem, with numerous adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves in a basal rosette spirally arranged, petiolate; lamina (1.5) 5–30 (40) × (0.5) 3–10 (17) cm., ovate to elliptic or rarely subcircular, entire sinuate or irregularly dentate, 3–9-veined at the base, usually glabrous or rarely pubescent, with the apex rounded to subobtuse, abruptly narrowed into the petiole; petiole 3–38 cm. long, usually as long as the lamina or shorter, cauliculate, flexible, glabrous or rarely pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scape (1) 7–15 (47) cm. long, 1–4 mm. in diam., erect or ascending, striate, glabrous or sometimes with short, appressed or ascending hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence spicate, the spikes nearly always cylindrical, almost invariably simple, (0.5) 10–15 (70) cm. long, 3–8 mm. in diam.; flowers densely to loosely arranged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 1–2 (2.5) mm. long, ovate, glabrous, midrib distinct.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 1.5–2 (2.5) mm. long, almost boat-shaped, usually equal, glabrous, green with narrow scarious margins, midrib prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tube c. 2 mm. long, glabrous; lobes 1–1.25 mm. long, lanceolate to ovate or narrowly triangular, acute to subacute, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2–3 mm. long, exserted; anthers at first lilac, later whitish or yellowish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose; pistil longer than the flower, hairy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 2–3 (5) mm. long, ovoid to globose or subconical, (3) 8–16 (34) seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–1.7 mm. long, ellipsoid or ellipsoid-trigonous, with the ventral side more convex than the dorsal.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb, acaulous, (10–)20–40(–70) cm tall with a short rootstock and many fibrous roots
Morphology Leaves
Leaves large, elliptic-ovate to orbicular-ovate, (5–)10–25(–40) × (1–) 4–10 (–20) cm, base tapering into petiole about as long as lamina, apex rounded, margins entire or irregularly dentate or sinuate-dentate, strongly 5–9-veined, glabrous or rough with sparse minute hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scape erect, ascending or arcuate, equal to leaves or shorter, pilose with sparse minute soft hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spike dense or lax, linear or linear-cylindrical, (8–)5–30(–50) cm; bract ovate, as long as or usually shorter than calyx, 1–2 mm, along midrib herbaceous and slightly keeled, scarious at margins, entire, obtuse, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals ovate-elliptic to orbicular, 1.5– 2.5 mm, with a distinct midrib, margins scarious, obtuse, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish or yellowish, lobes ovate, 0.5–1 mm long, obtuse or acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule longer than calyx, globose or conical, tapering above, 2-celled with 4–30 seeds
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds angular, smooth.
Ecology
In wet shaded places in farms and orchards, muddy places amongst rocks, near banks of shallow ponds and streams, in rich humus soil and on rich soil with limestone in upland forests; alt.: 150–900m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar.–Aug.
Distribution
Throughout Iraq except in the desert and plateau region; found in the upper plains and foothills and the alluvial plains. Europe to Siberia, from the Mediterranean region, Sinai, Arabian Peninsula to Iran and India; naturalized in N America and many other parts of the world.
Vernacular
BIZIR DINBIL (recorded by Blakelock, loc.cit.); TARAQUZ (recorded on label by Guest).

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Seeds - The seeds are eaten by birds (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Injuries
Leaves - Used in poultices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Leaves - Used in poultices to promote healing (Lagos-López 2007, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Pain
Leaves - Used as an analgesic (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Leaves - Used in the treatment of acne (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FIQ]
Use
A species of some economic value whose seeds and leaves are used medicinally as a laxative and a coolant; also used for application on boils. Several subspecific ranks were recognized in the original manuscript based mainly on leaf characters. I found it difficult to assign every collection to the subspecific rank recognized as many intermediates exist. The species is best treated as a single polymorphic species. The var., subvar. and f. are listed in synonymy.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cambodia, Chagos Archipelago, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Labrador, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Maine, Malaya, Manitoba, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Samoa, Saskatchewan, Seychelles, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Plantain
Spanish
Llantén, plantén, plantain.

Plantago major L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 28, 2016 Jusimin Duaneh [141], Sabah K000222935
Oct 28, 2016 Jusimin Duaneh [447], Sabah K000222936
Oct 28, 2016 Powell, D.R. [X.I.1356], Christmas I. K000222937
Oct 28, 2016 Chantaranothai, P. et al. [90/652], Thailand K000222938
Oct 28, 2016 Ramadhanil et al. [276], Sulawesi K000224027
Oct 28, 2016 Syahida Emiza, S. [51455], Peninsular Malaysia K000610249
Oct 28, 2016 Fidilis, K. [127757], Sabah K000611029
Oct 28, 2016 Jimaun, J. [64], Sabah K000610248
Oct 28, 2016 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 37], Vietnam K000610251
Oct 28, 2016 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 2], Vietnam K000610250
Jan 1, 2009 Takeuchi, W. et al. [20149], Papua New Guinea K000610247
Weaver, A., United Kingdom 16950.000
Ogden, W.J. 17443.000
Weaver, A., United Kingdom 21928.000
Thomas [s.n.] K000779550
Aunier [s.n.], France K000779554
Wallroth [s.n.] K000779552
Thomas [s.n.] K000779546
Cope, T.A. [RBG 154], United Kingdom K000914356
Irwin, H.S. [8470], Brazil K001048649
Glaziou, A. [12111], Brazil K001048650
Welwitsch [514], Angola K001008383
Couto, C. [101], Angola K001008384
Holuby, J.L. [s.n.], Czech Republic K000779555
Miers, J. [3550], Brazil K001048648
Thomas [s.n.], Switzerland K000779548
Menezes, A. [3501], Angola K001008382
Bolland, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001048645
Aitchison, J.E.T. [516], Afghanistan K000779586 isotype
Thomas [s.n.] K000779551
Gay, J. [s.n.] K000779553
Thomas [s.n.], Switzerland K000779549
Reita, P.R. [3219], Brazil K001048651
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001048646
Holuby, J.L. [s.n.], Hungary K000779556
Prost, T.C. [s.n.] K000779547
Day, C.D. [766], Turkey K000341699
Glaziou [7799], Brazil K001048647

First published in Sp. Pl.: 112 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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Flora of Iraq

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Iraq
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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