1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus setiger Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sahara to W. Indo-China and Tanzania.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths thickened and forming a bulb. Culms geniculately ascending; 5-80 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 2-20 cm long; 2-7 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2-12 cm long. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a cup below; with 1-3 mm connate; oblate; 3-7 mm long; base obconical. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; in one whorl, or with an outer whorl of thinner bristles; inner bristles longer than outer; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 2-4 mm long; flattened; grooved on the face; rigid; antrorsely scaberulous; glabrous, or pubescent, or ciliate; obtuse, or spinose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 3-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1.5-2 mm long; 0.5 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface puberulous. Lower glume apex obtuse, or acute. Upper glume ovate; 2 mm long; 0.5-0.66 length of spikelet; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface puberulous. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; puberulous; emarginate; mucronate. Fertile lemma ovate; 3-5 mm long; chartaceous, or coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex truncate, or obtuse; mucronate. Palea chartaceous, or coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; dorsally compressed; 1.5 mm long; truncate.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: north-central. South America: Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Andaman Is., Burkina, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Brazil North, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, China South-Central, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Caledonia, Texas

    Cenchrus setiger Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1932 Schweinfurth, G. [581], Sudan K000281262
    Jun 1, 1932 Schweinfurth, G. [563], Sudan K000281261
    Stocks, J.E. [s.n.], Pakistan K000245392
    Filgueiras, T.S. [836], Brazil K001106076
    Schimper, W. [2196], Ethiopia K000281260
    Schimper, W. [796], Saudi Arabia K001056135 Unknown type material
    Schimper, W. [796], Saudi Arabia K001056136 Unknown type material
    Schimper, W. [796], Saudi Arabia K001056138 Unknown type material
    Schimper, W. [797], Saudi Arabia K001056139
    Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K001056137
    [Mr Foure] [s.n.], Pakistan K001056133

    First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 2: 395 (1806)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.

    Not accepted by

    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75. [Cited as Cenchrus ciliaris.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0