1. Family: Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
    1. Genus: Passiflora L.
      1. Passiflora edulis Sims

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil to NE. Argentina.

    [FZ]

    Passifloraceae, R. and A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Large herbaceous, glabrous (except ovary) perennial climber, up to 15 m.
    Stem
    Stems ± terete, striate; internodes up to 9 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 13 × 15 cm., 3-lobed to below the middle of the lamina, the lobes 2–4 cm. wide, acute or acuminate, rarely subobtuse, serrate, rounded or shallowly cordate at base, subcoriaceous, pale green or yellow-green, glossy above, paler and not glossy beneath; petiole up to 4 cm. long, with 2 glands at the apex, the glands sessile or shortly stipitate; stipules c. 10 × 1 mm., linear-subulate, entire or minutely glandular-serrulate.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils c. 10 cm. long, stout, simple.
    Peduncles
    Peduncles up to 6 cm. long, stout.
    Bracts
    Bracts 2–2·5 × 1–1·5 cm., ovate, obtuse or acute at the apex, serrate, pectinate or almost lacerate, often glandular at margin.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, up to 7 cm. in diam.
    Calyx
    Sepals 3–3·5 × 1 cm., oblong, horned, green outside, white inside.
    Corolla
    Petals 2·5–3 × 0·5–0·7 cm., oblong, obtuse, white.
    Corona
    Corona with the filaments in 4 or 5 rows, those of the 2 outer ones 1·5–2·5 cm. long, filiform or narrowly liguliform, crispate towards the apex, white, purple at base, those of the other rows 2–2·5 mm. long, linear or dentiform.
    Operculum
    Operculum membranous, incurved, entire or shortly fimbriate.
    Limen
    Limen cupuliform, entire or crenulate.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid or globose, sericeo-tomentose or glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–5 cm. in diameter, ovoid or globose, yellow, greenish-yellow or purplish.
    Seeds
    Seeds 5–6 times; 3–4 mm., ovoid, minutely reticulate.
    [FTEA]

    Passifloraceae, W. J. J. O. de Wildem (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Climber to ± 15 m., perennial, glabrous throughout (except ovary); stem sometimes ± angular.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 3-lobed up to three-fourths, rarely unlobed, suborbicular to broadly ovate in outline, 5–11 by 6–12 cm., base acute to cordate, 3-nerved from base, subcoriaceous; lobes elliptic to oblong, up to 8 cm., top acute, shortly acuminate; margin serrate; petiole 1–4 cm.
    Glands
    Glands on petiole 2, wart-like, at transition to or up to 0.5 cm. below the blade; blade-glands absent.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate-linear, ± 1 cm.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1-flowered, the straight peduncle (pedicel) 3–6 cm., inserted beside a simple tendril 5–20 cm.; bracts and bracteoles ovate, acute, 1.5–2 cm., glandular-serrate, forming an involucre.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–7 cm. in diameter, white, corona threads purplish towards base.
    Hypanthium
    Hypanthium cup-shaped, ± 1 by 1–1.5 cm.; sepals oblong, 2–3 cm., corniculate.
    Corolla
    Petals oblong, 1–2.5 cm., obtuse.
    Corona
    Corona composed of several series of threads, the outer 2 series 0.5–2.5 cm., the inner ones much shorter; operculum membranous, incurved, crenulate-fimbriate; disk (limen) cupuliform, entire or crenulate.
    Androgynophore
    Androgynophore 6–8 mm., thickened towards base.
    Stamens
    Filaments subsubulate, 6–8 mm.; anthers 8–10 mm.
    Pistil
    Ovary subglobose to ellipsoid, 3–5 mm., glabrous or shortly pubescent; styles 10–12 mm.
    Fruits
    Fruit berry-like, with coriaceous-leathery pericarp, globose to ellipsoid, excluding the 0.5–1.5 cm. long gynophore 4–5 cm. in diameter, glabrous, yellow or purplish.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, ellipsoid, 5–6 mm.
    Habitat
    Often cultivated for the flavoured fruit and escaped in forest edges, thickets and disturbed places; 0–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K4 T2 T3 T6 T7 U4 widely cultivated

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Paraguay

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Argentina Northwest, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Central African Repu, Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Passiflora edulis Sims appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13533], Cameroon K000518720
    Nov 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4708], Cameroon K000746429
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2334], Cameroon K000338133
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2334], Cameroon K000338134
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2334], Cameroon K000338135
    Jul 1, 1999 Pollard, B.J. [49], Cameroon K000338137
    Jul 1, 1999 Pollard, B.J. [49], Cameroon K000338136
    29047.195
    Philcox, D. [4866], Brazil K001238069
    Reitz [7022], Brazil K001238068
    Pohl [919], Brazil K001238058
    Hind, D.J.N. [63], Brazil K001238051
    Hind, D.J.N. [63], Brazil K001238052
    Lepschi, B.J. [1012], Australia 62951.000
    Sena, T.S.N. [3], Brazil K001238056
    Arbo, M.M. [5250], Brazil K001238050
    Irwin, H.S. [21441], Brazil K001238047
    Irwin, H.S. [5299], Brazil K001238063
    Sobral, M. [4162], Brazil K001238046
    Pereira, B.A.S. [900], Brazil K001238049
    Usteri, A. [9], Brazil K001238055
    Smith, L.B. [1402], Brazil K001238070
    Burchell, W.J. [3226-2], Brazil K001238064
    Burchell, W.J. [2682], Brazil K001238065
    Dusén, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001238053
    Harris, T. [201], Mozambique K000613276
    Sandeman, C. [2022], Brazil K001238062
    Lobb [47], Brazil K001238059
    Reitz, R. [5175], Brazil K001238067
    Mexia, Y. [4173], Brazil K001238066
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17013], Brazil K001238054
    Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30044], Cameroon K000050365
    Benson, W. [10840], Brazil K001238045
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001238057
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001238060
    s.coll. [919], Brazil K001238061
    Lindeman, C.A.M. [325], Brazil K001238048

    First published in Bot. Mag. 45: t. 1989 (1818)

    Accepted by

    • Islas-Hernández, C.S. & al. (2018). Flora de Guerrero 81: 1-92. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2012). An enumeration of Sabah Passifloraceae, with a revised key to Adenia species Sandakania 18: 1-14.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Monteiro de Barros, A.A., de Andrade Ribas, L. & Dunn Araujo, D.S. (2009). Trepadeiras do Parque Estadual da Serra do Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Rodriguésia 60: 681-694.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Morat, P. (ed.) (1998). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 22: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Islas-Hernández, C.S. & al. (2018). Flora de Guerrero 81: 1-92. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • van der Burg, W.J. (2014). Passifloraceae Flore du Gabon 46: 54-94. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2012). An enumeration of Sabah Passifloraceae, with a revised key to Adenia species Sandakania 18: 1-14.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Monteiro de Barros, A.A., de Andrade Ribas, L. & Dunn Araujo, D.S. (2009). Trepadeiras do Parque Estadual da Serra do Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Rodriguésia 60: 681-694.
    • Estrada Chavarría, A. (2009). Flores de pasión de Costa Rica: historia natural e identificación: 1-448. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Morat, P. (ed.) (1998). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 22: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Passifloraceae: 1-70.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Killip in Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, Bot. 19 : 393 (1938).
    • Sims, 4.in Bot. Mag. 45, t. 1989 (1818).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0