1. Family: Ebenaceae Gürke
    1. Genus: Diospyros L.
      1. Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Small, medium–sized or large tree up to 36 m. high, but sometimes flowering as a shrub 2 m. high.
    Bole
    Bole long, straight, slender.
    Bark
    Bark dark grey or blackish, rough, reticulate and exfoliating on old trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves subcoriaceous, drying grey–green or blackish; lamina 3 x 1·2–12 x 4 cm., elliptic, oblanceolate–elliptic or lanceolate–elliptic, apex obtuse to shortly and bluntly subacuminate, rarely distinctly acuminate; lower surface glabrescent; lateral nerves in 5–12 pairs; venation prominent and closely reticulate on both surfaces.
    Flowers
    Male floiaers axillary and ramuligerous, in contracted 1018–flowered cymes; peduncle 0·1 cm. long; pedicels 0–1 cm. long, fulvous–setulose. Female flowers axillary or ramuligerous, in (1–2) 3–5(8)–flowered fascicles; pedicels 0·2 cm. long, fulvous–setulose.
    Calyx
    Calyx 0·2 cm. long, shallowly cyathiform, with 3–4 short, broadly deltate lobes, glabrous outside except for a few minute marginal hairs, glabrous inside. Calyx 0·6 cm. long, cyathiform, glabrous outside, finely strigulose towards the base inside, divided almost to the base; lobes 3–4 up to 0·6 x 0·6 cm., suborbicular, sometimes apiculate, strongly imbricate.
    Corolla
    Corolla 0·5–0·6 cm. long, sub–rotate, glabrous; tube 0·15 cm. long; lobes 3–4, 0·45 x 0·3 cm., broadly elliptic, apex obtuse. Corolla slightly shorter than the calyx, otherwise as in male.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10–15, 0·2–0·4 cm. long; anthers lanceolate–apiculate, sparsely setulose towards the apex.
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode 0·1 cm. long or absent, glabrous.
    Male
    Pistillode 0·1 cm. long or absent, glabrous. Corolla 0·5–0·6 cm. long, sub–rotate, glabrous; tube 0·15 cm. long; lobes 3–4, 0·45 x 0·3 cm., broadly elliptic, apex obtuse. Stamens 10–15, 0·2–0·4 cm. long; anthers lanceolate–apiculate, sparsely setulose towards the apex. Male floiaers axillary and ramuligerous, in contracted 1018–flowered cymes; peduncle 0·1 cm. long; pedicels 0–1 cm. long, fulvous–setulose. Calyx 0·2 cm. long, shallowly cyathiform, with 3–4 short, broadly deltate lobes, glabrous outside except for a few minute marginal hairs, glabrous inside.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes 3–4 glabrous, 0–2 cm. long, filiform, exserted, attached to the throat of the corolla and alternating with the lobes.
    Pistil
    Ovary 0–4 x 0–2 cm., conoidal, glabrous, gradually merging into the short undivided style; locules 6, uniovulate; stigmatic lobes, 3, about 0·1 cm. long, ascending.
    Female
    Ovary 0–4 x 0–2 cm., conoidal, glabrous, gradually merging into the short undivided style; locules 6, uniovulate; stigmatic lobes, 3, about 0·1 cm. long, ascending. Corolla slightly shorter than the calyx, otherwise as in male. Staminodes 3–4 glabrous, 0–2 cm. long, filiform, exserted, attached to the throat of the corolla and alternating with the lobes. Female flowers axillary or ramuligerous, in (1–2) 3–5(8)–flowered fascicles; pedicels 0·2 cm. long, fulvous–setulose. Calyx 0·6 cm. long, cyathiform, glabrous outside, finely strigulose towards the base inside, divided almost to the base; lobes 3–4 up to 0·6 x 0·6 cm., suborbicular, sometimes apiculate, strongly imbricate.
    Seeds
    Seed(s) 1 (very rarely 2), 0·9 x 0·6 cm., globose to sub–ellipsoid, black; endosperm smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruiting calyx scarcely accrescent, c. 0·7 cm. long, becoming patelliform. Fruit up to 1·4 x 0·9 cm., glabrous, ellipsoid or subglobose, style persistent.
    Note
    D. abyssinica, which is widespread in tropical Africa, is moderately variable in leaf–shape and size. This variation is too diffuse to justify the recognition of infra–specific taxa except for subsp. chapmaniorum, a consistently small–leaved variant in Malawi and adjacent parts of Zambia and Mozambique.
    [FWTA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Medium-sized evergreen forest tree, to 90 (-120) ft. high
    Trunk
    Long straight slender bole and small dense crown
    Bark
    Bark thin, dark, rough, reticulate and scaling on old trees
    Slash
    Slash black outside, bright yellow inside
    Flowers
    Flowers cream
    Fruits
    Fruit black.
    [FTEA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Small to large evergreen tree 5-36 m. tall but sometimes flowering as a shrub only 2-3 m. tall; bole long, clean, straight and slender; bark dark grey or blackish, rough, reticulate, scaling off in narrow fibrous strips or oblong plates; blaze bright yellow or amber; wood white, the heartwood with black streaks.
    Leaves
    Leaves drying grey-green or blackish, elliptic, oblong, oblanceolate-elliptic or lanceolate-elliptic, 3-15.5 cm. long, 1.2-5.4 cm. wide, obtuse to shortly and bluntly subacuminate or less often distinctly acuminate at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, subcoriaceous, glabrescent on lower surface or strigulose on midrib; lateral nerves in 5-12 pairs, the venation ± prominent and closely reticulate on both surfaces; petiole 4-8 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers peach-scented, 10-18 in contracted cymes, axillary or borne on branchlets; peduncle 1 mm. long; pedicels 1 mm. long, fulvous setulose; calyx shallowly cyathiform, 2 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3-4, broadly triangular, glabrous outside except for a few minute marginal hairs, glabrous inside; corolla cream, subrotate, 5-6 mm. long, glabrous; corolla-tube 1.5 mm. long; corolla-lobes 3-4, broadly elliptic, 4-5 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, obtuse at the apex; stamens 10-15, 2-4 mm. long; anthers lanceolate-apiculate, sparsely setulose towards the apex; rudimentary ovary 1 mm. long, glabrous, sometimes absent. Female flowers (1-)3-5(-8) in axillary or ramuligerous fascicles; pedicels 2 mm. long, fulvous-setulose; calyx cyathiform, 6 mm. long, glabrous outside, finely strigulose towards the base inside, divided almost to the base; calyx-lobes 3-4, strongly imbricate, ± round, 6 mm. long and wide, sometimes apiculate; corolla similar to that of male, slightly shorter than the calyx; staminodes 3-4, filiform, 2 mm. long, glabrous, attached to the corolla-throat and alternating with the lobes, exserted; ovary conical, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, glabrous, gradually merging into the short undivided style; locules 6, uniovulate; stigmatic lobes 3, ± 1 mm. long, ascending.
    Male
    Male flowers peach-scented, 10-18 in contracted cymes, axillary or borne on branchlets; peduncle 1 mm. long; pedicels 1 mm. long, fulvous setulose; calyx shallowly cyathiform, 2 mm. long; calyx-lobes 3-4, broadly triangular, glabrous outside except for a few minute marginal hairs, glabrous inside; corolla cream, subrotate, 5-6 mm. long, glabrous; corolla-tube 1.5 mm. long; corolla-lobes 3-4, broadly elliptic, 4-5 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, obtuse at the apex; stamens 10-15, 2-4 mm. long; anthers lanceolate-apiculate, sparsely setulose towards the apex; rudimentary ovary 1 mm. long, glabrous, sometimes absent.
    Female
    Female flowers (1-)3-5(-8) in axillary or ramuligerous fascicles; pedicels 2 mm. long, fulvous-setulose; calyx cyathiform, 6 mm. long, glabrous outside, finely strigulose towards the base inside, divided almost to the base; calyx-lobes 3-4, strongly imbricate, ± round, 6 mm. long and wide, sometimes apiculate; corolla similar to that of male, slightly shorter than the calyx; staminodes 3-4, filiform, 2 mm. long, glabrous, attached to the corolla-throat and alternating with the lobes, exserted; ovary conical, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, glabrous, gradually merging into the short undivided style; locules 6, uniovulate; stigmatic lobes 3, ± 1 mm. long, ascending.
    Fruits
    Fruit orange or yellow (red fide Dummer), ellipsoid or subglobose, 0.8-1.4 cm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, glabrous, with persistent style; calyx scarcely accrescent, becoming patelliform, 7 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seeds black, 1 (very rarely 2), globose to subellipsoid; endosperm smooth.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1960 Beccari, O. [55], Ethiopia K000350728
    Mar 1, 1955 Warnecke [220], Togo K000350634 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1955 Warnecke [220], Togo K000350635 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1955 Kersting [500], Togo K000350636
    Mar 1, 1955 Kersting [689], Togo K000350637
    Schweinfurth, G. [1557], Eritrea K000350727
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6660], Kenya K000696619

    First published in Bull. Jard. Bot. État Bruxelles 26: 241 (1956)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 26: 294, tt. 76 F-K, 77 C-D (1956).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 445, fig. (1994).
    • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 58: 371 (1988).
    • F. White in Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Ebenaceae: 19 (1987)
    • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 263 (1983)
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 31 (1980).
    • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 48: 287 (1978).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Southern Afr.: 743 (1977).
    • Letouzey & F. White in Fl. Cameroun 11 & Fl. Gabon 18: 29, t. 19/12-18 (1970).
    • F. White in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 10 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 332, t. 59G (1962)
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 172 (1961).
    • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 26: 241, 294, figs. 76F-L, 77C-D, 80 (1956).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
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