1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Citharexylum Mill. ex L.
      1. Citharexylum spinosum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Caribbean, Panama to N. South America.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    It is a shrub or small tree to 15 m..
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate-lanceolate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, 3.5–29 × 1–11.5 cm.
    Flowers
    Very fragrant white, cream or reddish flowers in simple or compound axillary and terminal racemes 2.5–35 cm. long; corolla ± 5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits blackish, fleshy, oblong, ± 8 mm. long.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Barbados.
    General
    A shrub or tree up to 16 m tall, without spines; branches and branchlets 4-angled, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate; lamina 4.5–21 × l.5–8 cm oblong, elliptic to obovate, acute or very shortly acuminate to obtuse or rounded and sometimes emarginate at the apex, more or less cuneate towards the base and there with 1–3 pairs of glands, entire, chartaceous to coriaceous, shiny and glabrous on both faces or shortly pubescent beneath
    Inflorescences
    Racemes mostly terminal, 3.5–26.5 cm long, usually lax, nutant or pendulous, many-flowered
    Flowers
    Flowers odoriferous, usually functionally dioecious
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.5–4 mm long, cup-shaped, thin, with the apex very shortly 5-dentate or truncate
    Corolla
    Corolla white or greenish-white; corolla tube 2–6 mm long
    Fruits
    Drupe up to 13 × 12 mm, oblong or subglobose, pink or red to orange or purple when immature, then purplish or black at maturity, surrounded at the base by the persistent, indurated calyx.
    Note
      Brummitt 9222 (K), from a plant cultivation on Maone Estate, Blantyre Distr., Malawi, is perhaps C. spinosum L. Balsinhas 1836 has leaves shortly and finely pubescent beneath and perhaps belongs to var. subvillosum Moldenke.  However, considering the great variation of the species, this variety is not recognized here.
    Distribution
    Native of Florida, southern United States, West Indies and northern South America.  Cultivated in some countries. Mozambique District code: MOZ M.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Netherlands Antilles, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bermuda, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Mozambique, Tunisia

    Citharexylum spinosum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Hamilton, M.A. [333], Montserrat 78043.000
    Oct 1, 1935 Britton, N.L. [233], Bahamas Citharexylum fruticosum var. villosum K000487159 isotype
    Oct 1, 1935 Small, J.K. [8583], Bahamas Citharexylum fruticosum var. smallii K000487160 isotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 625 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist notulae, 10 Willdenowia 49: 95-115.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist notulae, 10 Willdenowia 49: 95-115.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0