1. Family: Ebenaceae Gürke
    1. Genus: Diospyros L.
      1. Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Evergreen shrub or small tree 4-18 m. high, with dense crown; bark brown, rough; heartwood black; slash red to pink or white.
    Scales
    Bud-scales absent or minute and fugaceous.
    Leaves
    Leaves coppery green when young, subcoriaceous, drying pale brown; lamina broadly elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic, 1-11 cm. long, 0.8-3.5 cm. wide, apex usually shortly acuminate or subacuminate, sometimes obtuse or rounded, rounded to cuneate at base, lower surface glabrous except for a few hairs, chiefly on the midrib and margin; secondary nerves in ± 5-9 pairs, together with the tertiary nerves and veins forming an indistinct reticulum.
    Flowers
    Male flowers subsessile in 1-3(-4)-flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’ s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 1-3 mm. long, densely setulose; calyx 3 mm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; calyx-lobes 3, ± triangular, very variable in shape and size; corolla white, 5 mm. long, lobed to just below the middle; corolla-lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid-petaline lines, otherwise glabrous; stamens 8-14, in pairs; filaments 0.5-1 mm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs; rudimentary ovary represented by a tuft of hairs. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’ s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided; staminodes absent; ovary 3 mm. long, conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile in 1-3(-4)-flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’ s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 1-3 mm. long, densely setulose; calyx 3 mm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; calyx-lobes 3, ± triangular, very variable in shape and size; corolla white, 5 mm. long, lobed to just below the middle; corolla-lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid-petaline lines, otherwise glabrous; stamens 8-14, in pairs; filaments 0.5-1 mm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 1-1.5 mm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs; rudimentary ovary represented by a tuft of hairs.
    Female
    Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’ s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided; staminodes absent; ovary 3 mm. long, conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
    Fruits
    Fruit red, broadly ellipsoid or depressed-globose, ± 1-1.3 cm. long, 0.9-1.2 cm. wide, sparsely adpressed hairy or glabrous except for a few hairs towards the base of the persistent calyx.
    Seeds
    Seeds subellipsoid, 1-2, 9 × 4 × 3 mm.
    Calyx
    Fruiting calyx patelliform, 3 mm. long, irregularly 3-lobed, lobes broadly triangular to semicircular.
    Figures
    Fig. 2/1.
    Habitat
    Thicket and forest on coral rag, also forest patches on black cotton soil and riverine and lakeside forest; 0-250 m.
    Distribution
    Senegal to Angola, Central Africa Republic, Zaire, Sudan, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, and also India, Sri Lanka to Australia and to Hawaii K7 T3 T8
    [FWTA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Forest shrub or small under-storey tree 5-45 ft. high with spreading and arching branches
    Bark
    Bark dark grey, slash black outside, red inside, sapwood white or pale straw-coloured
    Shoots
    Young shoots densely rusty pilose
    Flowers
    Flowers white.
    [FZ]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Evergreen shrub or small tree up to 18 m. high.
    Buds
    Bud–scales absent or minute and fugaceous.
    Leaves
    Leaves subcoriaceous, drying pale brown; lamina 3·5 x 1·8–8 x 3·5 cm., broadly elliptic to lanceolate–elliptic, apex usually shortly acuminate or sub–acuminate, sometimes obtuse or rounded, lower surface glabrous except for a few setulose hairs, chiefly on the midrib and margin; secondary nerves in about 5–9 pairs, together with the tertiary nerves and veins forming an indistinct reticulum.
    Flowers
    Male flowers subsessile in 1–3(4)–flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 0·1–0·3 cm. long, densely setulose. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided.
    Male
    Male flowers subsessile in 1–3(4)–flowered cymules in axils of leaves or towards base of current year’s growth in axils of caducous bracts; peduncle 0·1–0·3 cm. long, densely setulose. Calyx 0·3 cm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; lobes 3, ± deltate, very variable in shape and size. Stamens 8–14, in pairs; filaments 0·05–0·1 cm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 0·1–0·15 cm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs. Pistillode represented by a tuft of hairs. Corolla 0·5 cm. long, lobed to just below the middle, lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid–petaline lines, otherwise glabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 0·3 cm. long, densely strigulose outside, glabrous inside; lobes 3, ± deltate, very variable in shape and size.
    Corolla
    Corolla 0·5 cm. long, lobed to just below the middle, lobes 3, elliptic, somewhat fleshy, ascending, with densely strigulose mid–petaline lines, otherwise glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8–14, in pairs; filaments 0·05–0·1 cm. long, inserted on the receptacle, glabrous; anthers 0·1–0·15 cm. long, lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous or with a few apical hairs.
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode represented by a tuft of hairs.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes absent.
    Ovary
    Ovary 0·3 x 0 .25 cm., conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas.
    Female
    Ovary 0·3 x 0 .25 cm., conoidal, densely strigulose, terminating in 3 fleshy, bilobed stigmas. Female flowers solitary in axils of leaves and caducous foliaceous bracts towards base of current year’s shoot, subsessile, somewhat larger than the male and with calyx and corolla less deeply divided. Staminodes absent.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2, 0 9 x 0·4 x 0·3 cm., sub–ellipsoid.
    Fruits
    Fruiting calyx patelliform, 0·3 cm. long, irregularly 3–lobed, lobes broadly deltate to hemi–orbicular. Fruit c. 1–3 x 0–9 cm., broadly ellipsoid, glabrous except for a few strigulose hairs towards the base of the persistent style.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n = 30.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nigeria, Philippines, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Diospyros ferrea (Willd.) Bakh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11937], Cameroon K000339694
    Mar 1, 2006 Tadjouteu, F. [570], Cameroon K000339048
    Mar 1, 1955 Dalziel, J.M. [413], Nigeria K000350652 syntype
    Mar 1, 1955 Lely, H.V. [229], Nigeria K000350653 syntype
    Mar 1, 1955 Don [s.n.], Congo, DRC K000350677
    Faulkner, H. [2151], Tanzania 55939.000
    Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India Diospyros nigrescens K000792382
    Kajewski, S.F. [932], Vanuatu Diospyros ferrea f. subelliptica K000792741 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4145], Myanmar Maba buxifolia K001038241
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038239
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038240
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038242
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4145] Maba buxifolia K001038243

    First published in Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 7: 162 (1933)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Callimander, M.W. & al. (eds.) (2013). Notes on the flora of Madagascar. 30-34 Candollea 68: 301-320.

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141. [Cited as Diospyros vera.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Sultana, M., Rahman, M.O., Begum, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2010). Diospyros albiflora Alston (Ebenaceae): A new Angiospermic record for Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Botany 39: 249-251.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Whitmore, T.C. (1966). Guide to the forests of the British Solomon islands: 1-208. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F. White in Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Ebenaceae: 8, t. 1A-G (1987).
    • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 252, t. 55A (1983)
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 31 (1980).
    • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin botanique National de Belgique 48: 273, fig. 5 & 6 (1978) (full synonymy)
    • F. White in Distr. Pl. Afr. 14, carte 455 (1978).
    • Hepper, W. Afr. Herb. Isert & Thonning: 53 (1976).
    • Letouzey & F. White in Fl. Cameroun 11 & Fl. Gabon 18: 69, t. 16/13-22 (1970).
    • F. White in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 11 (1963).
    • Bakh. in Gard. Bull., Singapore 7: 162 (1933).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Wood Anatomy Microscope Slides
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/