1. Family: Ebenaceae Gürke
    1. Genus: Diospyros L.
      1. Diospyros kirkii Hiern

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Ebenaceae, F. White. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Small, deciduous or semi–deciduous tree 4–8 m. high.
    Bole
    Bole often twisted.
    Crown
    Crown rounded.
    Bark
    Bark dark grey or blackish, rough with deep longitudinal fissures.
    Branches
    Young branchlets, leaves and inflorescence–axes densely covered with pinkish lanate indumentum.
    Leaves
    Leaves subcoriaceous, drying pale reddish–brown; lamina 8 x 5–18 x 12 cm., broadly elliptic, apex and base usually rounded; lower surface persistently pubescent with spreading flexuose hairs, rarely glabrescent; secondary nerves in 6–8 pairs, prominent beneath, tertiary nerves and veins forming a prominent reticulum beneath.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 3–or more flowered cymules borne towards the base of the current year’s growth in the axils of caducous reduced leaves or the first–formed foliage leaves; peduncles 0·5–1·5 cm. long; pedicels c. 0·1 cm. long. Female flowers similar to male but solitary or in pairs and much larger, especially the calyx which is 0·8–1 cm. long and is more deeply–lobed.
    Calyx
    Calyx 0·4–0·7 cm. long, lobes 4–5, 0·3–0·5 cm. long, debate.
    Male
    Calyx 0·4–0·7 cm. long, lobes 4–5, 0·3–0·5 cm. long, debate. Corolla 1 cm. long, urceolate, velutinous–tomentose outside, glabrous inside and thickened at the throat; tube 0·8 cm. long; lobes 4–5, 0·2 cm. long, ovate–apiculate. Male flowers in 3–or more flowered cymules borne towards the base of the current year’s growth in the axils of caducous reduced leaves or the first–formed foliage leaves; peduncles 0·5–1·5 cm. long; pedicels c. 0·1 cm. long. Pistillode minute, tomentose. Stamens 14–16, included, 0·5–0·6 cm. long; filaments very short, inserted on the receptacle; anthers linear–lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous.
    Corolla
    Corolla 1 cm. long, urceolate, velutinous–tomentose outside, glabrous inside and thickened at the throat; tube 0·8 cm. long; lobes 4–5, 0·2 cm. long, ovate–apiculate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 14–16, included, 0·5–0·6 cm. long; filaments very short, inserted on the receptacle; anthers linear–lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous.
    Pistillodes
    Pistillode minute, tomentose.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes c. 8, filiform.
    Female
    Staminodes c. 8, filiform. Ovary 0·6 x 0·4 cm.; locules 4; style not differentiated from the ovary; stigma large, fleshy, sessile, 3–4–lobed. Female flowers similar to male but solitary or in pairs and much larger, especially the calyx which is 0·8–1 cm. long and is more deeply–lobed.
    Ovary
    Ovary 0·6 x 0·4 cm.; locules 4; style not differentiated from the ovary; stigma large, fleshy, sessile, 3–4–lobed.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3–4, reddish–brown; endosperm ruminate.
    Fruits
    Fruiting calyx with flat not undulate lobes, except sometimes in very old specimens. Fruit up to 3·5 cm. in diameter, golden–yellow or orange, globose, verruculose, glabrescent.
    [FTEA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Usually small deciduous or semideciduous tree 3-8(-12 or more?) m. tall, with often twisted bole and rounded crown; bark black or dark grey, rough and deeply fissured with “ expanded metal appearance”; slash yellow-pink; young branchlets leaves and inflorescences pinkish lanate or densely brown velvety tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves drying pale reddish brown or pale green, oblong-elliptic to broadly elliptic, 4-19 cm. long, 2.1-12.8 cm. wide, rounded at both ends, ± coriaceous, at first densely hairy but less so with age, and ± glabrous above, although even in very old leaves some persistent pubescence is present; lateral nerves 6-8 pairs, prominent beneath, tertiary nerves and veins forming a close reticulation, slightly raised above, strongly raised beneath and very prominent in old large leaves; petiole thick, 0.7-1.3 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 3- or more-flowered cymules borne towards the base of the current year’ s growth in the axils of deciduous reduced leaves or the first-formed foliage leaves; peduncles 0.5-1.5 cm. long; pedicels ± 1 mm. long; calyx 4-7 mm. long, densely spreading brown hairy; calyx-lobes 4-5(-6), triangular, 3-5 mm. long, acuminate with rounded tip and revolute margins; corolla brown outside, greenish inside, urceolate, 1 cm. long, glabrous inside and thickened at the throat, velutinous-tomentose outside; corolla-tube 8 mm. long; corolla-lobes 4-5, ovate-apiculate, 2 mm. long; stamens 14-16, 5-6 mm. long, included; filaments very short, inserted on the receptacle; anthers linear-lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous; rudimentary ovary minute, tomentose. Female flowers similar to male but solitary or in pairs and much larger; calyx 0.8-1 cm. long; calyx-lobes triangular, up to 9 mm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, densely brown hairy, revolute; staminodes ± 8, filiform; ovary 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide with 4 locules; style not clearly differentiated; stigma large, fleshy, sessile, 3-4-lobed.
    Male
    Male flowers in 3- or more-flowered cymules borne towards the base of the current year’ s growth in the axils of deciduous reduced leaves or the first-formed foliage leaves; peduncles 0.5-1.5 cm. long; pedicels ± 1 mm. long; calyx 4-7 mm. long, densely spreading brown hairy; calyx-lobes 4-5(-6), triangular, 3-5 mm. long, acuminate with rounded tip and revolute margins; corolla brown outside, greenish inside, urceolate, 1 cm. long, glabrous inside and thickened at the throat, velutinous-tomentose outside; corolla-tube 8 mm. long; corolla-lobes 4-5, ovate-apiculate, 2 mm. long; stamens 14-16, 5-6 mm. long, included; filaments very short, inserted on the receptacle; anthers linear-lanceolate, apiculate, glabrous; rudimentary ovary minute, tomentose.
    Female
    Female flowers similar to male but solitary or in pairs and much larger; calyx 0.8-1 cm. long; calyx-lobes triangular, up to 9 mm. long, 5.5 mm. wide, densely brown hairy, revolute; staminodes ± 8, filiform; ovary 6 mm. long, 4 mm. wide with 4 locules; style not clearly differentiated; stigma large, fleshy, sessile, 3-4-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit greenish yellow to golden-yellow or orange, globose or ellipsoid-globose, 2-4 cm. diameter, at first densely adpressed sericeous velvety but eventually glabrous and shiny, slightly verruculose; calyx with flat persistent lobes usually not undulate save in old specimens.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2-4, reddish brown, narrowly oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 5 mm. wide; endosperm ruminate.
    Figures
    Fig. 3/25.
    Habitat
    Mixed Brachystegia woodland, Combretum-Isoberlinia woodland; 450-1350 m.
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T6 T7 T8
    [FTEA]

    Ebenaceae, F. White & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Shrub or tree with short gnarled shoots.
    Leaves
    Leaves oblong, 4-7 cm. long, 2-4 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, acute at the base, coriaceous, almost glabrous above but with white hairs on venation and traces of downy hairs on surface, densely pubescent beneath with golden hairs; petiole 7-10 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in ± many-flowered cymes on short hairy twigs, sessile; calyx campanulate, 5 mm. long, coriaceous, rusty hairy outside, 5-6-lobed for ± half-way; calyx-lobes narrowly triangular, acute; corolla (perhaps not quite fully developed) urceolate or tubular, rusty-yellow adpressed hairy outside; corolla-teeth broadly triangular, obtuse, 1.5 mm. long, ± 1/5 - 1/6 the length of the tube; stamens 13-15, enclosed in the tube, the outer 5-6 mm. long with 2 mm. long filaments, the inner shorter.
    Male
    Male flowers in ± many-flowered cymes on short hairy twigs, sessile; calyx campanulate, 5 mm. long, coriaceous, rusty hairy outside, 5-6-lobed for ± half-way; calyx-lobes narrowly triangular, acute; corolla (perhaps not quite fully developed) urceolate or tubular, rusty-yellow adpressed hairy outside; corolla-teeth broadly triangular, obtuse, 1.5 mm. long, ± 1/5 - 1/6 the length of the tube; stamens 13-15, enclosed in the tube, the outer 5-6 mm. long with 2 mm. long filaments, the inner shorter.
    Note
    No trace of a rudimentary ovary.
    Habitat
    Wooded grassland
    Distribution
    T6

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Diospyros kirkii Hiern appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1960 Gossweiler, J. [2068], Angola K000350784 Unknown type material
    Dec 1, 1960 Baum, H. [945], Angola K000350785 syntype
    Dec 1, 1960 Welweitsch [2531], Angola K000350783 syntype
    Robson, N.K.B. [157], Zambia 22145.000
    Robson, N.K.B. [903], Zambia 7022.000
    Harley, R.M. [9381], Tanzania 5070.000
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000350781
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000350782
    Timberlake, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000614788

    First published in Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12: 199 (1873)

    Accepted by

    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F. White in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 58: 407, fig. 18 & 21/1 (1988).
    • F. White in Flore d'Afrique Centrale, Ebenaceae: 86, t. 14I-L (1987)
    • F. White in Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 284, t. 65B (1983)
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 31 (1980).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Southern Afr.: 747 (1977).
    • Wild et al., Rhod. Bot. Dict., ed. 2: 150 (1972).
    • Gomes e Sousa, Dendrol. Moçamb., Estudo Geral, 2: 630, photo. on 590, t. 195 (1966).
    • F. White in Syst. Assoc. Publ. 4: 88-96, t. 9A (1962).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 331 (1962)
    • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 8: 499 (1954).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 185 (1949).
    • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 306 (1895).
    • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 523 (1877).
    • Hiern in Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 12: 199 (1873)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0