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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1850 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FZ]

Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Erect well-branched sometimes robust herb 1–2(3) m tall; branches densely appressed pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3(4)-foliolate; leaflets mostly 3–13 × 2.5–7 cm, elliptic to obovate, appressed puberulous beneath; petiole ± as long as leaflets or shorter; stipules up to 3 mm long, filiform, deciduous, or absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes shortly pedunculate, mostly 15–30 cm long, many-flowered; bracts up to 5 mm long, linear, caducous before the flowers open; bracteoles at the base of the calyx, similar but smaller.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 6–7.5 mm long, becoming basally truncate and deflexed against the pedicel, ± densely appressed pubescent; lobes narrowly triangular-acuminate, subequal to or longer than the tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard elliptic, yellow, usually veined reddish-brown, glabrous outside; wings much shorter than the keel; keel 1.2–1.4(1.5) cm long, shallowly rounded, with a narrow somewhat projecting pointed beak (slightly incurved only at the tip), yellowish-green, sometimes conspicuously lined brown or purple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod 3.8–5 × 0.6–0.8 cm, shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, sometimes slightly curved, puberulous, usually glabrescent, 30–40-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 3.5 mm long, oblique-cordiform, smooth to minutely papillose, brown or mottled ochre and dark grey-green.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Erect well-branched annual or short-lived perennial, up to 1–2(–3) m. tall.
Morphology Stem
Stem with short appressed hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3(–4)-foliolate; leaflets variable, elliptic, obovate-elliptic or obovate, up to 40–110 mm. long, 25–52 (–70) mm. wide, glabrous above, thinly appressed puberulous beneath; petiole ± 20–85 mm. long.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules filiform, up to 3 mm. long, caducous, or absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes shortly pedunculate, up to 15–30 cm. long, with many fairly closely arranged flowers; bracts linear, up to 5 mm. long, caducous before the flowers open; bracteoles inserted at the base of the calyx, filiform, up to 1–3 mm. long, but sometimes small and obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx becoming basally truncate and deflexed against the pedicel, 6–7·5·mm. long, appressed puberulous; lobes narrow, acuminate, subequal to or longer than the tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Standard elliptic, yellow, often veined reddish-brown, glabrous outside; wings much shorter than the keel; keel rather shallowly rounded about the middle, with a narrow slightly projecting untwisted beak, 12–14(–15) mm. long, yellowish-green, usually conspicuously veined brown or purple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pod shortly stipitate, subcylindrical, sometimes slightly curved, 38–46 mm. long, 6–8 mm. across, puberulous, usually glabrescent, ± 30–40-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblique-cordiform, ± 3·5 mm, long, smooth or minutely papillose, mottled ochre and dark grey-green, or brown.

[ILDIS]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Ecology
Africa: Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone; grasslands., Lake Victoria regional transition zone; grasslands, Sudanian grasslands, Tongaland-Pondoland regional transition zone - grassland., Zambezian grassland, Guinea-Congolia/Zambezia region
Morphology General Habit
Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
Vernacular
Aika, Aikaberavina, Aikavavy, Ambarivatrindoly, Amberivatrindolo, Brusquillo, Cascabelitos, Cascavelle Trois Feuilles, Ding Ding, Guiso-de-cascavel, Kirintsa, Kitsonakoho, Mato-pasto-branco, Pine Kotalelia, San, Sen, Smooth Crotalaria, Streaked Rattlepod,

[ILDIS]
Use
Domestic, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Toxins, Weed

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Bahamas, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Sumatera, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vanuatu, Venezuela, Western Australia, Windward Is.

Crotalaria pallida Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2001 Souza, M.G.C. [20], Brazil K000893260
Dec 1, 2000 Gottsberger, G.K. [11-29468], Brazil K000893253
May 1, 1995 Farias, G.L. [456], Bahia K000187716
May 1, 1995 Folli, D.A. [1748], Brazil K000893259
Sep 1, 1992 Coradin, L. [8677], Bahia K000187987
Jun 1, 1992 Agra, M.F. [1195], Paraíba K000187715
Sep 9, 1988 Eden, M.J. [s.n.], Brazil K000893261
Mar 1, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [749], Bahia K000187714
Jan 7, 1983 Vianna, M.C. [914], Brazil K000893258
Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [474], Bahia K000187710
Apr 6, 1981 Winder, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000893256
Apr 6, 1981 Winder, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000893257
Mar 9, 1979 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893244
Nov 28, 1978 Weiss [1576], Brazil K000893245
Nov 1, 1973 Rolland, G. [10], Ceará K000187712
Nov 1, 1973 Rolland, G. [s.n.], Ceará K000187711
Nov 1, 1973 Miers, J. [3390], Brazil K000893249
Nov 1, 1973 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893248
Nov 1, 1973 Gardner [5427], Brazil K000893241
Nov 1, 1973 Schubert [s.n.], Brazil K000893254
Nov 1, 1973 Dusén, P. [9720], Brazil K000893250
Nov 1, 1973 Pohl [s.n.], Brazil K000893251
Nov 1, 1973 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000893240
Nov 1, 1973 Burchell [1576], Brazil K000893247
Nov 1, 1973 Gillivray, J.M. [268], Brazil K000893243
Nov 1, 1973 Glaziou [8403], Brazil K000893239
Nov 1, 1973 Guillemin [105], Brazil K000893255
Nov 1, 1973 Malme [22], Brazil K000893242
Nov 1, 1973 Pabst, G.F.J. [4502], Brazil K000893246
Jan 1, 1965 Maitland, T.D. [115], Cameroon K000086912
McWhirter, J. [60], Madagascar 32187.000
Pickersgill, B. [RU72136], Bahia K000187713
[Peverely/illegible] [s.n.], Sri Lanka K000591113
Semir, J. [1955], Brazil K000893262
Ferrucci, M.S. [1074], Bahia K000188116
Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K000893252
Eiten, G. [2362], Brazil K000893238
illegible [3608], Sri Lanka K000591112
Yuncker, T.G [8241], Honduras K001088766
Peru K001475730
Peru K001475731
Peru K001475732
Colombia K001475733
Colombia K001475734
Ecuador K001475735
Ecuador K001475736
Ecuador K001475737

First published in Hort. Kew. 3: 20 (1789)

Accepted by

  • (2021). https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.501.2.2 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ansari, A.A. & Chauhan, V. (2020). Crotalaria L. in India: A supplement: 1-152. M/S Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
  • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
  • Balslav, H. & Chantaranothai, P. (2018). Flora of Thailand 4(3.1): 221-371. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1-41.
  • Silva Flores, A. & De Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G. (2018). A synopsis of the genus Crotalaria (Leguminosae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 346: 31-58.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Avendaño, N. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Crotalaria L. (Faboideae-Crotalarieae) en Venezuela Acta botanica Venezuelica 34: 13-78.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Leverett, L.D. & Woods, M. (2012). The genus Crotalaria (Fabaceae) in Alabama Castanea 77: 364-374.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.N. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2003). Flora Zambesiaca 3(7): 1-274. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1983). Takapoto atoll, Tuamotu archipelago: terrestrial vegetation and flora Atoll Research Bulletin 277: 1-41.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
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