1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Enneapogon Desv. ex P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Temp. Asia, W. Central U.S.A. to Mexico, Peru to N. Argentina.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets awned, solitary, slightly laterally compressed, 3-6-flowered; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and below the fertile florets, terete; florets 3 in African spp.; the lowermost hermaphrodite; the 2nd male or sterile; the terminal reduced, often only a tuft of awns.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, persistent, 3-5 (rarely sub-7)-nerved, equal to slightly unequal, membranous, dorsally rounded or inconspicuously keeled; the superior one about as long as the inferior lemma (excluding the awns).
    Lemma
    Lemma of the inferior (hermaphrodite) floret 9-nerved, 9-awned, chartaceous, rather firm, broad, dorsally rounded, densely pilose (villous) at least in the lower 1/2; awns equal or subequal, subulate, straight, scaberulous or plumose, (2)3-5 times as long as the body of the lemma; callus minute.
    Palea
    Palea 2-nerved, 2-keeled, slightly longer than the lemma body, hyaline, often ciliolate along the keels.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, minute, glabrous, fleshy.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong to broadly elliptic in outline, dorsally somewhat compressed or shallowly grooved; embryo rather large, about 3/4 the length of the caryopsis, hilum punctiform, basal.
    Habit
    Predominantly perennials, rarely annual grasses, of various habits.
    Ligules
    Ligule reduced to a fringe of hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually a contracted often spike-like panicle. Second lemma similar but only 1/2 as long as the first.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials, or sometimes annuals, with wiry culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, flat or involute, sparsely to densely hairy, the hairs usually gland-tipped
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually contracted or spiciform, rarely open
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–6-flowered (3-flowered in Flora area), the lowest floret hermaphrodite, the second floret hermaphrodite or ♂ (rarely sterile), the uppermost floret barren and represented only by a lemma which is often reduced to a small brush-like appendage; glumes lanceolate, sparsely hairy, the upper slightly longer than the lower and usually exceeding the body of the lemmas; lemmas oblong, broad, chartaceous or indurated, villous below the middle, the nerves (or some of them) excurrent into 9 awns; awns 3–5 times as long as the lemma, usually ciliate for much of their length and scaberulous at the tip; palea exceeding the body of the lemma
    Distribution
    Species ± 30; tropics and subtropics, especially in Australia and Africa, preferring dry, open habitats.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (8), or perennial (23). Rhizomes absent (21), or short (3). Culms erect (3/5), or geniculately ascending (3/5), or decumbent (2/5); slender (1/1); 3-39.85-107 cm long; firm (18), or wiry (6). Culm-internodes channelled (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (6/15), or sparse (9/15), or ample (6/15). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (23), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (4), or linear (20); stiff (3), or firm (21).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; terminal, or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (1), or contracted (7), or spiciform (17), or capitate (2). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (22), or 2 fertile florets (3), or 3 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2-5.41-13.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (23), or above glumes but not between florets (1). Floret callus pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (22), or 2 fertile florets (3), or 3 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 2-5.41-13.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (23), or above glumes but not between florets (1). Floret callus pubescent (1/2), or pilose (1/2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or ovate (21); 0.6-0.887-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-8-23 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (22), or ribbed (2). Lower glume surface smooth (22), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (1); glabrous (8), or pubescent (14), or pilose (11). Lower glume apex entire (20), or erose (9), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1), or truncate (7), or obtuse (10), or acute (15), or acuminate (6); muticous (21), or mucronate (9). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (19); 1.2-2.202-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-7-23 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (22), or ribbed (2). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (8), or pubescent (14), or pilose (11); with simple hairs (16/20), or tubercle-based hairs (1/20), or capitate hairs (8/20). Upper glume apex entire (20), or erose (9), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (2/23), or truncate (6/23), or obtuse (10/23), or acute (14/23), or acuminate (6/23); muticous (23), or mucronate (7).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong (13), or orbicular (7), or oblate (4); membranous (6), or chartaceous (8), or cartilaginous (11), or coriaceous (7); of similar consistency above (21), or firmer above (3); of similar consistency on margins (22), or much thinner on margins (3); without keel; 9 -veined, or 10-11 -veined (8). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4); without ribs (18), or ribbed (11). Lemma surface pubescent (4), or pilose (13), or villous (7); without hair tufts (23), or with a transverse row of hair tufts (1). Lemma margins eciliate (14), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (13). Lemma apex dentate; 9 -fid; awned; 9 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0.8-1.804-3 length of lemma; limb glabrous (1), or ciliate (11), or plumose (12). Lateral lemma awns subequal to principal. Palea 1-1.125-1.4 length of lemma; membranous (22), or cartilaginous (2). Palea keels smooth (22), or scaberulous (2); eciliate (2), or ciliolate (14), or ciliate (9). Palea surface glabrous (8), or pubescent (15), or pilose (3). Palea apex dentate (1/1); muticous (22), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (4). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (3), or 2 in number (16), or 3 in number (11), or 4 in number (7), or 5 in number (2); barren; separate (15), or in a clump (9); rudimentary (7/8), or oblong (1/8). Apical sterile lemmas awned. Apical sterile lemma awns glabrous (1), or ciliate (23).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (15/16), or oblong (3/16), or orbicular (1/16), or obovoid (13/16); plano-convex (7/15), or concavo-convex (9/15). Embryo 0.75-0.8-0.9 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (21/21).
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (21), or present (4); in upper sheaths (2/4), or in lower sheaths (3/4).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (4), or Australasia (16), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Ascension, Bolivia, Botswana, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nevada, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Niger, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Qinghai, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Utah, Uzbekistan, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil Northeast, Hawaii, Maryland, St.Helena

    Enneapogon Desv. ex P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 81 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Renvoize in Kew Bull. 22: 393 (1968).
    • Ess. Agrost. 81 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Agrost.: 81 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Renv. in K.B. 22: 393 (1968)
    • Ess. Agrost.: 81 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/