1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Pappophorum Schreb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Arizona to Texas and Honduras, Caribbean, S. Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect (3/3), or geniculately ascending (3/3); robust (1/1); 6-66-200 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (1); stiff (1), or firm (6), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (7), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (7), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle contracted (4), or spiciform (4). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (5), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3-7.125-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus pilose (3/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (5), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 3-7.125-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus pilose (3/3).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (6); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or ovate (4); 0.6-0.885-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (5), or membranous (3); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex entire (7), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/7), or acute (7/7); muticous (4), or mucronate (3), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or ovate (4); 1-1.964-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (3); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex entire (7), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/7), or acute (7/7); muticous (4), or mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (6); without keel; 5 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (3), or 8 -veined (2), or 9 -veined (3), or 11-15 -veined (2). Lemma midvein eciliate (1), or ciliate (5), or pubescent (2). Lemma surface glabrous (7), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate (1), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex awned; 11 -awned (3), or 12-14 -awned (5), or 15 -awned (4), or 18 -awned (1), or 19 -awned (2), or 20-22 -awned (3), or 23-26 -awned (1). Principal lemma awn 1.5-2.25-3 length of lemma. Lateral lemma awns of irregular length. Palea 1.1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/2). Palea keels smooth (7), or scaberulous (1); eciliate (6), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (1), or 2 in number (7), or 3-4 in number (2); barren; in a clump; rudimentary (4), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2). Apical sterile lemmas awned.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (2/2).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); ovoid (2/2). Embryo 0.4-0.4667-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/2).
    Distribution
    North America (4), or South America (6).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Extinct in:

    Cuba

    Introduced into:

    Guyana, Maine, New York

    Pappophorum Schreb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9242], Brazil K001101454
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8903] K001131809

    First published in Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a], 2: 787 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0