1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Rhytachne Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, S. Mexico, S. Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (9). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (2). Culms erect (2/2); slender (2/2); 15-71.23-180 cm long. Lateral branches ample (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (11), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (9). Leaf-blades filiform (6), or linear (7).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle widened at apex (1/1). Racemes single. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; semiterete. Rhachis internodes columnar (2), or clavate (2), or cuneate (8). Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Spikelets squeezed between internode and pedicel (1/1); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (11), or sessile and pedicelled (1); 1 in the cluster (11), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (11/11); 1 in the cluster (11/11). Pedicels linear.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by barren pedicels (5), or represented by awns (3), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (10/10). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (7/7).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (6), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed; 2-5.827-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (8), or pubescent (4); base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by barren pedicels (5), or represented by awns (3), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (10/10). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (7/7).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (6), or ovate (5); dorsally compressed; 2-5.827-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus glabrous (8), or pubescent (4); base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic (1), or oblong (11); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (11); without keels; wingless (8), or winged on margins (4); 4 -veined (2/9), or 5 -veined (5/9), or 6 -veined (3/9), or 7 -veined (4/9), or 9 -veined (2/9). Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (10), or ribbed (2). Lower glume surface smooth (6), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (1), or muricate (5), or rugose (5); glabrous (11), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex entire (11), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); obtuse (1/11), or acute (10/11), or acuminate (2/11); muticous (9), or mucronate (2), or awned (5). Upper glume lanceolate (3), or oblong (9); membranous; 1-keeled (1/1); 3 -veined (10), or 5 -veined (2). Upper glume surface smooth (11), or rugose (1). Upper glume apex acute (1/2), or acuminate (1/2); muticous (7), or mucronate (2), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (10), or barren (3); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (10), or ovate (2); hyaline (11), or membranous (1); 1 -veined (1/5), or 2 -veined (2/5), or 3-4 -veined (1/5); obtuse (1), or acute (11). Fertile lemma lanceolate (8), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3); hyaline (11), or membranous (1); without keel; 1 -veined (3/7), or 2 -veined (1/7), or 3 -veined (5/7). Lemma margins eciliate (10), or ciliolate (2). Lemma apex acute. Palea present (11), or absent or minute (1); 0.5-0.675-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1/11), or membranous (10/11); 0 -veined (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1/1); fleshy (1/1); truncate (1/1). Anthers 3 (11/11). Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); oblong (1/1); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (9), or North America (2), or South America (4).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Leaf sheaths
    Basal leaf sheaths rarely compressed; ligule a short membrane; leaf laminas narrow, often setaceous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single terminal cylindrical raceme; internodes clavate, as long as or longer than the sessile spikelet.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; inferior glume crustaceous, wingless (very obscurely winged in latifolia), sharply inflexed in the inferior half, smooth, muricate or rugose on the back, usually glabrous, sometimes awned; superior glume sometimes awned; inferior floret male; superior lemma entire and awnless. Pedicelled spikelet almost as long as the sessile spikelet or, more often, much reduced, sometimes awned; pedicel curved and subfoliaceous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials or sometimes annuals
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow, often filiform; ligule short, membranous; basal sheaths very rarely compressed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single terminal raceme; racemes cylindrical; internodes clavate, as long as or longer than the sessile spikelet
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume crustaceous, very rarely winged, sharply inflexed in the lower half, smooth or rugose, usually glabrous; upper glume sometimes awned; lower floret ♂; upper lemma entire and awnless Pedicelled spikelet almost as long as the sessile or more often much reduced, sometimes awned; pedicel curved and subfoliaceous.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet convex on the back; callus truncate, with prominent central peg; lower glume crustaceous, very rarely winged, sharply inflexed in the lower half, smooth or rugose, usually glabrous; upper glume sometimes awned; lower floret ♂; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, dorsally compressed
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet almost as long as the sessile or more often much reduced, sometimes awned; pedicel curved and subfoliaceous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Benin, Brazil North, Brazil South, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Paraguay, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Venezuela, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bolivia, Brazil Southeast, Cuba, Mexico Gulf

    Rhytachne Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in W.Hamilton, Prodr. Pl. Ind. Occid.: xiv (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kew Bull. 24: 309 (1970).
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 20: 258 (1966)
    • F.T.A. 9: 81 (1917)
    • in Hamilt., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 11 (1825)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 32: 767–771 (1978).
    • in Hamilton, Prodr. Pl. Ind. Occid.: 11 (1825).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in K.B. 32: 767 (1978)
    • Clayton in K.B. 24: 309 (1970)
    • K. Schum. in P.O.A. C: 96 (1895), as “ Rhytidachne ”
    • in W. Ham., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ: 11 (1825)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0