1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to India, Papuasia to Australia, Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennials, rarely annuals.
    Ligules
    Ligule a very short densely ciliate membrane; leaf laminas flat or rolled.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, these terminal or sometimes axillary and gathered into a spathate false panicle; racemes flexuous, dorsally compressed; rhachis internodes columnar to subclavate, strongly oblique at the summit, neither crateriform nor scariously rimmed.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate; callus often large, applied obliquely to the summit of the internode; inferior glume subcoriaceous to herbaceous, broadly convex on the back, smooth or sometimes toothed on the keels (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), laterally 2-keeled, the keels ciliately fringed and often with an oil-streak on the inner side, mostly cuspidate to a bifid apex; superior glume awnless; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior lemma entire and awnless. Pedicelled spikelet well developed, muticous or aristulate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (14), or short (1). Culms erect (14/14); slender (1/1); 5-74.83-200 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (6/14), or sparse (5/14), or ample (5/14), or fastigiate (1/14). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (7), or a fringe of hairs (8). Leaf-blades filiform (2), or linear (13); stiff (2), or firm (12), or flaccid (1); without scent (12), or aromatic (3).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (11), or compound (4); scanty (1/2), or paniculate (1/2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (8), or terminal and axillary (7); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (8), or an inflated leaf-sheath (5), or a spatheole (2); exserted (11), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Spatheole linear (2/2). Racemes single. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete. Spikelet packing 2 -rowed (1/1). Rhachis internodes linear. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (3), or linear (12); tip rectangular (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (5/10), or mucronate (2/10), or awned (5/10). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (12), or elliptic (3), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 3-6.586-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (1), or oblong (1), or cuneate (12), or linear (1); pubescent (12), or pilose (1), or bearded (2); base obtuse (14), or acute (1); attached obliquely.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (5/10), or mucronate (2/10), or awned (5/10).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (12), or elliptic (3), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 3-6.586-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (1), or oblong (1), or cuneate (12), or linear (1); pubescent (12), or pilose (1), or bearded (2); base obtuse (14), or acute (1); attached obliquely.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets (14), or exceeding apex of florets (1); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong (1), or ovate (14); chartaceous; 2-keeled; 5 -veined (2/8), or 6-7 -veined (3/8), or 8 -veined (1/8), or 9 -veined (3/8). Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct (1/1). Lower glume surface convex, or flat (1); glabrous (11), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (2), or hirsute (1), or villous (6); without hair tufts (12), or with marginal tufts of hair (3). Lower glume apex entire (8), or dentate (5), or lobed (7); 2 -fid (12/12); obtuse (1/11), or acute (1/11), or acuminate (5/11), or setaceously attenuate (4/11); muticous (11), or awned (4). Upper glume lanceolate (14), or ovate (1); membranous (3/3); 1-keeled; 1-2 -veined (1/8), or 3 -veined (8/8), or 4-5 -veined (1/8). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (13), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface glabrous (7), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (5), or pilose (2), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispid (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (13), or acuminate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (5), or elliptic (8), or oblong (2); hyaline; 0 -veined (2/11), or 2 -veined (9/11); acute (4/4). Fertile lemma lanceolate (4), or oblong (11); hyaline; without keel; 0-1 -veined (1), or 2 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (13). Lemma margins eciliate (12), or ciliolate (3). Lemma apex entire (14), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); acute (3/3). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (14); 0.25 length of lemma.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (11/11).
    Distribution
    Africa (10), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (1), or North America (3), or South America (6).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat or rolled; ligule a short membrane or a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a single raceme, these terminal, or sometimes axillary and gathered into a spathate false panicle; raceme flexuous, dorsally flattened; internodes subclavate, not crateriform
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate; callus often large, applied obliquely to the summit of the internode; lower glume subcoriaceous to herbaceous, broadly convex, smooth (or sometimes toothed on the keels), laterally 2-keeled, the keels ciliately fringed and often with an oil streak on the inner side, mostly cuspidate to a bifid tip; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless Pedicelled spikelet well developed, muticous or aristulate.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate; callus often large, applied obliquely to the summit of the internode; lower glume subcoriaceous to herbaceous, broadly convex, smooth (or sometimes toothed on the keels), laterally 2-keeled, the keels ciliately fringed and often with an oil streak on the inner side, mostly cuspidate to a bifid tip; upper glume awnless; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire and awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, dorsally compressed
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet well developed, muticous or aristulate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Morocco

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Guyana, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Namibia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Elionurus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hatschbach, G. [54625], Brazil K001106292

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 941 (1806)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 62 (1917).
    • Sp. Pl. 4: 941 (1806)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Renvoize in Kew Bull. 32: 665–675 (1978).
    • Kunth in Humboldt Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 192 (1817).
    • Sp. Pl. 4: 941 (1806).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Renvoize in K.B. 32: 665–675 (1978)
    • Kunth in Humboldt & Bonpland, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 192 (1817)
    • Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 941 (1806)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0