1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Gymnopogon P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Indo-China, Central & E. U.S.A. to Tropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (12). Rhizomes absent (4), or short (6), or elongated (4). Culms erect (7/11), or geniculately ascending (4/11), or decumbent (4/11); 5-47.42-100 cm long. Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (3), or a ciliate membrane (9), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades linear (7), or lanceolate (8); stiff (13), or firm (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (12), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes digitate (5), or borne along a central axis (10); erect (2), or ascending (9), or spreading (5), or drooping (2), or deflexed (3); unilateral. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (2), or lax (4), or distant (8); 2 -rowed (2/2). Raceme-bases brief (9), or filiform (5). Spikelets appressed (12/12); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong (12/13), or cuneate (1/13).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (13), or rudimentary (3). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (12), or 2 fertile florets (4), or 3 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension (4), or with diminished florets at the apex (10). Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (11), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 1.66-4.372-9.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (13), or elongated (1); glabrous (2/12), or pubescent (10/12), or pilose (1/12); obtuse (13), or pungent (1).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (13), or rudimentary (3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (12), or 2 fertile florets (4), or 3 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension (4), or with diminished florets at the apex (10). Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (11), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 1.66-4.372-9.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (13), or elongated (1); glabrous (2/12), or pubescent (10/12), or pilose (1/12); obtuse (13), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma (2), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (12); gaping. Lower glume linear (9), or lanceolate (5); 0.66-0.8807-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (13), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (13), or awned (1). Upper glume linear (10), or lanceolate (4); 1-1.696-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acute (1), or acuminate; muticous (13), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (11), or ovate (2); hyaline (2), or membranous (12); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (12), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (13), or scaberulous (1); glabrous (12), or pubescent (3). Lemma margins eciliate (8), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (6), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (13); 2 -fid (13/13); incised 0.2 of lemma length; obtuse (1/1), or acute (1/1); muticous (3), or mucronate (2), or awned (13); 1 -awned (13/13). Principal lemma awn apical (1/13), or subapical (10/13), or from a sinus (2/13); straight (7/13), or flexuous (6/13). Palea 0.9-0.9833-1.1 length of lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (12). Palea keels smooth (13), or scabrous (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (8/10), or 2 in number (5/10), or 3 in number (1/10); barren (10/10); separate (9/10), or in a clump (1/10); rudimentary (9/10), or linear (2/10). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (1/10), or awned (9/10).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 2 (1), or 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear (2/6), or lanceolate (1/6), or fusiform (2/6), or ellipsoid (1/6); plano-convex (1/2), or concavo-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Tropical Asia (1), or North America (4), or South America (11).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Laos, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia

    Gymnopogon P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 41 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Cialdella, A.M. & Zuloaga, F.O. (2011). Taxonomic study of Gymnopogon (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 98: 301-330.
    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0