1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Danthonia DC.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Caucasus, N. Africa, Russian Far East, Temp. & Subtropical America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (18), or short (7), or elongated (1). Culms erect (16/18), or geniculately ascending (4/18), or decumbent (2/18); slender (1/1); 4-38.79-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (3/3). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (24), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (9), or linear (17); stiff (1), or firm (24).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (22), or comprising only a few spikelets (6). Panicle open (18/22), or contracted (6/22). Spikelets appressed (2/3), or ascending (1/3), or spreading (1/3), or deflexed (1/3); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-5-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 6.5-15.72-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (2), or evident (23); pubescent (11), or pilose (14), or bearded (3); truncate (1), or obtuse.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-5-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 6.5-15.72-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (2), or evident (23); pubescent (11), or pilose (14), or bearded (3); truncate (1), or obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (6), or exceeding apex of florets (19); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (24), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (4), or lanceolate (22), or ovate (1); 0.8-1-1.2 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (24), or 1-keeled (1); 3 -veined (20), or 4 -veined (11), or 5 -veined (16), or 6-7 -veined (6). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (23). Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6), or acuminate (19), or attenuate (1). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (22), or ovate (1); 0.75-2.179-7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with undifferentiated margins (22), or hyaline margins (3); without keels (24), or 1-keeled (1); 3 -veined (16), or 4 -veined (8), or 5 -veined (15), or 6 -veined (4), or 7 -veined (6). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6), or acuminate (19), or attenuate (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (22), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); chartaceous (19), or coriaceous (6); of similar consistency on margins (23), or much thinner on margins (2); without keel; 5 -veined (13/21), or 7 -veined (4/21), or 8 -veined (3/21), or 9 -veined (7/21), or 10-11 -veined (1/21). Lemma midvein eciliate (24), or ciliate (1). Lemma surface glabrous (10), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11); without hair tufts (23), or with marginal hair tufts (2). Lemma margins eciliate (7), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (14), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex dentate (1), or lobed (24); 2 -fid; incised 0.25-0.4233-0.66 of lemma length; acute (1/2), or acuminate (1/2); mucronate (1), or awned (24); 1 -awned (4/24), or 3 -awned (20/24). Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight (1), or curved (1), or geniculate (23). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (18/18). Palea 0.5-0.8333-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (24/24). Palea keels wingless (22), or winged (3); smooth (23), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (1); eciliate (9), or ciliolate (16). Palea surface glabrous (20), or pubescent (1), or pilose (4). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (24), or distinct from fertile (1); 1 in number (1/1); barren (1/1); rudimentary (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy; glabrous (23), or ciliate (5); truncate (1/1). Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (6/8), or ovoid (1/8), or obovoid (1/8). Embryo 0.33-0.4263-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (2/24), or linear (22/24); 0.2-0.2883-0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (6), or present (19); in upper sheaths (2/19), or in lower sheaths (18/19).
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (3), or Australasia (1), or North America (10), or South America (16).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Krym, Labrador, Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Chatham Is., Costa Rica, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, St.Helena, Tasmania, Victoria

    Danthonia DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 3: 32 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0