1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Rytidosperma Steud.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Malesia to Australasia, Hawaiian Islands, Easter Island, S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Inflorescence a contracted panicle, sometimes reduced to a raceme.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–10-flowered; glumes subequal, as long as the spikelet or almost so; floret callus short to narrowly oblong, rarely linear, obtuse (sometimes narrowly so); lemmas rounded on the back, 5–9-nerved, bearing tufts of hairs arranged in 2 transverse series, these sometimes reduced to 2 marginal tufts, rarely represented by a transverse band of longer hairs, 2-lobed at the apex, the lobes usually awned, with a straight or geniculate awn in the sinus; palea usually longer than the body of the lemma, the keels glabrous, wingless.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (66), or short (8), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (71), or present (3). Culms erect (35/39), or geniculately ascending (10/39), or decumbent (4/39); robust (2/8), or slender (6/8); 2-35.49-140 cm long; without nodal roots (1/7), or rooting from lower nodes (7/7). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (60), or deciduous at the ligule (13); aciculate (5), or filiform (25), or linear (44); herbaceous (70), or coriaceous (3); stiff (12), or firm (60), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (71), or pungent (3).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (72), or composed of racemes (2), or comprising only a few spikelets (5); exserted (71), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (27/66), or contracted (44/66), or spiciform (1/66). Primary panicle branches not whorled (71/72), or whorled at lower nodes (1/72). Racemes single (2/2). Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (72/72).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-5-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (3/69), or elliptic (4/69), or oblong (1/69), or obovate (1/69), or cuneate (60/69); laterally compressed; 3-10.76-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (17), or evident (51), or elongated (5); glabrous (1/65), or pubescent (32/65), or pilose (29/65), or bearded (3/65); obtuse (70), or acute (1), or pungent (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-5-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (3/69), or elliptic (4/69), or oblong (1/69), or obovate (1/69), or cuneate (60/69); laterally compressed; 3-10.76-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (17), or evident (51), or elongated (5); glabrous (1/65), or pubescent (32/65), or pilose (29/65), or bearded (3/65); obtuse (70), or acute (1), or pungent (2).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (17), or reaching apex of florets (13), or exceeding apex of florets (48); thinner than fertile lemma (65), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (8); incurved at apex (1), or parallel to lemmas (59), or gaping (13). Lower glume linear (2/69), or lanceolate (53/69), or elliptic (8/69), or oblong (3/69), or ovate (9/69); 0.9-0.9993-1.2 length of upper glume; hyaline (2/69), or membranous (61/69), or chartaceous (4/69), or scarious (2/69); without keels (66/69), or 1-keeled (3/69); 1-6-13 -veined. Lower glume surface smooth (68), or asperulous (7); glabrous (71), or puberulous (2), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex entire (72), or erose (1); truncate (1/69), or obtuse (11/69), or acute (39/69), or acuminate (20/69), or attenuate (4/69), or setaceously attenuate (1/69); muticous (68/69), or mucronate (1/69). Upper glume linear (2/69), or lanceolate (53/69), or elliptic (8/69), or oblong (4/69), or ovate (8/69); 0.7-1.522-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (2/69), or membranous (60/69), or chartaceous (5/69), or scarious (2/69); with undifferentiated margins (57), or hyaline margins (11), or membranous margins (2), or scarious margins (3); without keels (66/69), or 1-keeled (3/69); 1-5-13 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (72), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1); meeting at apex (2/2). Upper glume surface smooth (68), or asperulous (7); glabrous (71), or puberulous (2), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex truncate (1/69), or obtuse (11/69), or acute (38/69), or acuminate (21/69), or attenuate (4/69), or setaceously attenuate (1/69); muticous (68/69), or mucronate (1/69).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (1/69), or lanceolate (7/69), or elliptic (6/69), or oblong (48/69), or ovate (7/69), or oblanceolate (1/69); membranous (4/69), or chartaceous (63/69), or coriaceous (2/69); without keel (69/69); 3 -veined (1/62), or 5 -veined (4/62), or 6 -veined (3/62), or 7 -veined (15/62), or 8 -veined (5/62), or 9 -veined (49/62), or 11 -veined (1/62). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface glabrous (54), or pubescent (9), or pilose (9), or villous (2); without hair tufts (4), or with basal hair tufts near margin (2), or with marginal hair tufts (24), or with a transverse row of hair tufts (13), or with 2 transverse rows of hair tufts (34), or with a transverse fringe of hair (5). Lemma margins eciliate (66), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (6), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (9), or lobed (63); 2 -fid (72/72); incised 0.05-0.5085-0.8 of lemma length; obtuse (2/22), or acute (5/22), or acuminate (5/22), or attenuate (6/22), or setaceously attenuate (9/22); muticous (2), or mucronate (5), or awned (70); 1 -awned (23/70), or 3 -awned (53/70). Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight (15), or curved (3), or flexuous (1), or geniculate (57). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (3/3). Palea 0.75-0.875-1 length of lemma; membranous (72), or chartaceous (1); 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels smooth (71), or scabrous (1), or spinulose (1); eciliate (18), or ciliolate (51), or ciliate (4). Palea surface glabrous (45), or pubescent (7), or pilose (25), or villous (4). Palea apex dentate (9/9). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (68/68); fleshy (68/68); glabrous (14/68), or ciliate (55/68). Anthers 3 (68/68).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (3/34), or oblong (5/34), or ovoid (2/34), or obovoid (21/34), or oblanceolate (4/34); dorsally compressed (1/1); biconvex (1/2), or plano-convex (1/2). Embryo 0.33-0.5483-1 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/7), or elliptic (5/7).
    Distribution
    Africa (1), or Tropical Asia (12), or Australasia (56), or Pacific (3), or South America (6).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Culms 4-20 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-3 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 5-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1.5-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keel; 9 -veined. Lemma midvein ciliate. Lemma surface with marginal hair tufts. Lemma apex dentate; 3 -fid. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy; ciliate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Australasia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Easter Is., Hawaii, Jawa, Kermadec Is., New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Philippines, Queensland, South Australia, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    California, Madeira, Oregon

    Rytidosperma Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Webster, M.M. [2157], United Kingdom K000719999
    Webster, M.M. [5057], United Kingdom K000720000
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000719997
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000719998

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 425 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 425 (1854).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0