1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Calamagrostis Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (262). Rhizomes absent (176), or short (47), or elongated (46). Stolons absent (260), or present (5). Culms erect (176/201), or geniculately ascending (40/201), or decumbent (6/201), or rambling (2/201); reed-like (1/22), or robust (5/22), or slender (16/22); 2-57.59-1120 cm long; firm (263), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (2/3). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (2/3), or elliptical in section (1/3). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/1); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (65/68), or sparse (4/68), or ample (2/68). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (261), or erect (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (246), or a ciliolate membrane (22). Leaf-blades aciculate (5), or filiform (29), or linear (231), or lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); herbaceous (251), or coriaceous (15); stiff (59), or firm (203), or flaccid (2); without exudate (262), or pruinose (2). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (247), or pungent (17).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (257), or an inflated leaf-sheath (7); exserted (259), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (130), or contracted (100), or spiciform (48), or capitate (2). Primary panicle branches not whorled (239), or whorled at lower nodes (4), or whorled at most nodes (21). Spikelets appressed (4/5), or ascending (1/5); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (263). Pedicels filiform (40/46), or linear (1/46), or clavate (5/46); tip widened (4/4).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); without rhachilla extension (24), or with a barren rhachilla extension (242), or with diminished florets at the apex (3). Spikelets lanceolate (247), or elliptic (7), or oblong (4), or ovate (3), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 1.245-5.126-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (263/263). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (248), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (16); pilose (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (12), or sparsely hairy (4), or pubescent (89), or pilose (58), or bearded (113); obtuse (263), or acute (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); without rhachilla extension (24), or with a barren rhachilla extension (242), or with diminished florets at the apex (3). Spikelets lanceolate (247), or elliptic (7), or oblong (4), or ovate (3), or cuneate (3); laterally compressed; 1.245-5.126-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (263/263). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (248), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (16); pilose (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (12), or sparsely hairy (4), or pubescent (89), or pilose (58), or bearded (113); obtuse (263), or acute (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (263/263); shorter than spikelet (13/263), or reaching apex of florets (51/263), or exceeding apex of florets (204/263); thinner than fertile lemma (12), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (9), or firmer than fertile lemma (243); parallel to lemmas (182), or recurved at apex (2), or gaping (81). Lower glume linear (5), or lanceolate (248), or elliptic (8), or oblong (1), or ovate (5); not clasping (1/1); 0.66-0.9924-1.4 length of upper glume; membranous (251), or chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (3/263), or 1-keeled (261/263); 0 -veined (1/259), or 1 -veined (243/259), or 2 -veined (2/259), or 3 -veined (17/259), or 4-5 -veined (1/259), or 7 -veined (1/259). Lower glume lateral veins absent (242), or obscure (4), or distinct (21). Lower glume surface smooth (186), or asperulous (55), or scabrous (29); glabrous (259), or puberulous (3), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex entire (261), or erose (3), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (16), or acute (142), or acuminate (105), or attenuate (10), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (260), or mucronate (5), or awned (2). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (3), or lanceolate (247), or elliptic (9), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); 0.4-1.268-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (250/263), or chartaceous (4/263), or coriaceous (9/263); with undifferentiated margins (241), or hyaline margins (8), or membranous margins (2), or scarious margins (13); without keels (3/263), or 1-keeled (261/263); 0 -veined (1/214), or 1 -veined (106/214), or 2 -veined (27/214), or 3 -veined (132/214), or 4 -veined (1/214), or 5 -veined (2/214). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (257/263), or ciliolate (6/263), or ciliate (1/263). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (197/198), or ribbed (1/198). Upper glume surface smooth (185), or asperulous (54), or scabrous (32); glabrous (259), or puberulous (3), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (261), or erose (3), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1), or obtuse (17), or acute (140), or acuminate (101), or attenuate (12), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (261), or mucronate (5), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (200), or elliptic (8), or oblong (46), or ovate (19); laterally compressed (1/1); lanceolate in profile (1/1); hyaline (11), or membranous (226), or chartaceous (13), or cartilaginous (10), or coriaceous (4); of similar consistency above (258), or much thinner above (6); of similar consistency on margins (263), or much thinner on margins (1); without keel (261/263), or keeled (3/263); 0 -veined (3/216), or 1-2 -veined (1/216), or 3 -veined (15/216), or 4 -veined (7/216), or 5 -veined (201/216), or 6 -veined (2/216), or 7 -veined (4/216). Lemma midvein eciliate (263), or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (17/31), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (1/31), or distinct (8/31), or prominent (6/31); without ribs (262), or ribbed (2); excurrent (12/21), or extending close to apex (10/21). Lemma surface smooth (150), or asperulous (19), or scaberulous (79), or scabrous (30), or papillose (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled, or rugulose (1); glabrous (256), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (4), or pilose (1), or hispidulous (1); without hair tufts (263), or with basal hair tufts near margin (1). Lemma apex entire (81), or erose (46), or dentate (151), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (73/149), or 3 -fid (18/149), or 4 -fid (82/149), or 5 -fid (1/149); incised 0.2-0.265-0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (5/90), or truncate (49/90), or obtuse (19/90), or acute (16/90), or acuminate (7/90); muticous (17), or pungent (1), or mucronate (5), or awned (253); 1 -awned (245/254), or 3 -awned (2/254), or 5 -awned (7/254). Principal lemma awn apical (1/255), or subapical (24/255), or from a sinus (7/255), or dorsal (228/255); straight (109/255), or curved (17/255), or flexuous (6/255), or geniculate (140/255); 0.8-1.375-2.5 length of lemma. Column of lemma awn glabrous (144/146), or hispidulous (1/146), or puberulous (1/146). Palea 0.3-0.8739-1 length of lemma; hyaline (37), or membranous (227); 0 -veined (1/44), or 2 -veined (43/44); without keels (1), or 2-keeled (263). Palea keels separated (259/263), or approximate (3/263), or contiguous above a sulcus (1/263); smooth (218/263), or scaberulous (34/263), or scabrous (11/263); eciliate (261/263), or ciliolate (2/263). Palea apex erose (1/5), or dentate (4/5). Apical sterile florets 0 in number (1/3), or 1 in number (3/3); rudimentary (2/3), or linear (1/3). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (1/3), or awned (2/3).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (239/239); membranous (12/12); glabrous (238/239), or ciliate (1/239); emarginate (1/1). Anthers 1 (1/262), or 2 (2/262), or 3 (259/262). Stigmas 2 (229/229). Ovary glabrous (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (249/249); lanceolate (6/30), or fusiform (10/30), or ellipsoid (3/30), or oblong (9/30), or ovoid (3/30); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 0.15-0.26-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (222/226), or elliptic (1/226), or linear (3/226).
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (263), or present (1); in lower sheaths (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (15), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (79), or Tropical Asia (30), or Australasia (40), or Pacific (2), or North America (38), or South America (99), or Antarctica (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat
    Inflorescences
    Panicle usually rather narrow and dense
    Spikelets
    Spikelets linear to lanceolate, acuminate; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, not prolonged or only as a very short bristle; glumes persistent, subequal, linear-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, firmly membranous, keeled upwards, finely acute, the lower 1-nerved, the upper 1–3-nerved; lemma lanceolate to oblong, shorter than the glumes, hyaline, glabrous, 3–5-nerved, truncate-denticulate or ± bifid with the lobes acute or toothed, awned from the back or from the sinus of the lobes or from the tip; awn short, fine and straight; callus bearded with long white hairs, as long as or often much longer than the lemmas; palea as long as the lemma or shorter.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 50-85-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades stiff (2), or firm (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (2), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-12.08-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-12.08-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (2). Lower glume lanceolate; 0.9-0.95-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (1). Upper glume lanceolate; 1-1.166-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute (2), or acuminate (1).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (1); keeled; 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (1). Lemma surface asperulous (1), or scaberulous (2). Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (2/2); muticous (2), or mucronate (1). Principal lemma awn subapical (1/1). Palea 0.9-0.9333-1 length of lemma; 2-4 -veined. Palea keels approximate; smooth (2), or scaberulous (1).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid (1/1). Hilum linear; 0.8 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America, or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Kuwait, Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Sinai, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Extinct in:

    France

    Introduced into:

    Falkland Is., Fiji, Norfolk Is., Somalia

    Calamagrostis Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2897], Brazil K001101089
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2897], Brazil K001101090
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3996], Brazil K001101091
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2896], Brazil K001101092
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3997], Brazil K001101093
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 3781], India K001119994
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3781], Nepal K001119993
    Dombrowski, L.T. [6671], Brazil K001101094

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 31 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 33 (1788)
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 31, 530 (1763)

    Sources

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0