1. Family: Lauraceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Persea Mill.
      1. Persea americana Mill.

        The avocado belongs to the laurel family (Lauraceae), which includes many aromatic trees and shrubs. The common name comes from the Nahuatl (a Mexican language) word ahuácatl, meaning testicle, and refers to the shape of the fruits, an association which led to their being considered a fertility food. Avocados have been cultivated for their highly nutritious fruits since about 8,000 BC, and there is evidence that they were eaten as a wild fruit before then. The oldest archaeological record is from Coxcatlan, Mexico, from about 10,000 BC.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    The avocado belongs to the laurel family (Lauraceae), which includes many aromatic trees and shrubs. The common name comes from the Nahuatl (a Mexican language) word ahuácatl, meaning testicle, and refers to the shape of the fruits, an association which led to their being considered a fertility food. Avocados have been cultivated for their highly nutritious fruits since about 8,000 BC, and there is evidence that they were eaten as a wild fruit before then. The oldest archaeological record is from Coxcatlan, Mexico, from about 10,000 BC.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Persea americana  is thought to have originated in Mexico and Central America (the Pacific coasts of Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama).

    Avocado is now widely cultivated in large quantities, for example in Indonesia, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, the USA (California and Florida) and Australia.

    Three 'races' of avocado

    Persea americana  is a variable species, and having been cultivated for thousands of years it is not easy to determine the origin of many plants grown today. Avocados are frequently discussed in the horticultural literature in terms of three ecologically distinct 'races', each of which grows best at a particular elevation above sea level. These are as follows:

    Marianne North Painting 608: 'The Avocado or Alligator Pear' West Indian/Antillean/lowland race (also referred to as  P. americana  subsp.  americana  or  P. americana var.  americana ). Grows best at up to 800 m (in a tropical climate). Guatemalan race (also referred to as  P. americana  subsp.  guatemalensis  or  P. americana  var. guatemalensis ). Grows at 800-2,400 m (in a semitropical climate). Mexican race (also referred to as  P. americana  subsp.  drymifolia  or  P. americana var. drymifolia ). Grows at 2,400-2,800 m (in a subtropical climate).

    Further work is needed to confirm the true nature of these groups.

    Description

    Overview:  A rapidly-growing tree or shrub that normally grows up to 20 m tall (but can reach 40 m) and lives for about 50 years. The crown (cluster of branches and leaves at the top of the trunk) is rounded.

    Leaves:  Dull dark green above, paler beneath, 8.0-30.0 cm long, 3.5-19.0 cm wide and held on a leaf stalk (petiole) 2-5 cm long. They are leathery and tough and have an aniseed-like aroma when crushed.

    Flowers:  The green, finely hairy flowers are about 5-8 mm long and held in clusters at the ends of branches. Male and female flowers are borne on the same plant, but male and female parts mature at different times to reduce the chance of self-fertilisation.

    Fruits:  Usually pear-shaped, 5-15 cm long and 2-5 cm in diameter. Each fruit contains a single, large, oily, rounded seed. The seed is surrounded by firm, lime-green to yellow flesh, which in turn is encased in a thick, leathery, dark green to dark purple-green skin. Thin-skinned cultivars are also available.

    Avocado cultivars

    Avocado flowers open twice - once when the female parts are mature and then again (after closing for many hours) when the male parts are mature. This helps prevent self-fertilisation but means that lone plants rarely produce fruit. Orchards must ensure they include cultivars with flowers that open at different times to ensure pollination takes place.

    Persea americana 'Fuerte' is perhaps the most popular cultivar, it produces pear-shaped fruit with a shiny, green skin.  Persea americana  'Hass' has warty-skinned fruit that turns dark purple when ripe and is also popular.

    Threats and conservation

    Persea americana  is widespread in cultivation, but avocado diversity is threatened by global market demands for the  P. americana  'Hass' cultivar. This cultivar has replaced subtropical and tropical avocados in cultivation in the Americas.

    A further threat is posed by the rapid spread of a non-native, invasive fungus ( Phytophthora cinnamomi ) for which the avocado has no 'natural' resistance. This fungus causes serious root-rot, decreasing yields globally and even leading to the loss of entire avocado seed banks.

    Uses

    Avocados have long been cultivated for their edible fruits, the flesh is highly nutritious and has a composition different from that of other fruits. It is high in calories (220 kcal per 100 g), contains vitamins A, B and E and is a good source of folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, iron and potassium. It is eaten in salads and desserts and used as a sandwich filling and an ingredient in dips and spreads (such as guacamole), ice-creams and milkshakes.

    It is important to note that avocado fruits, leaves, stems and seeds are poisonous to many animals and birds (the leaves being the most toxic part). Also, some people experience allergic reactions of varying severity after eating avocado fruit.

    Avocado oil penetrates human skin more readily than other oils such as almond, corn and olive oil and is used in cosmetics and toiletries.

    The seeds yield a milky juice that has been used as ink for marking linen and clothing.

    There have been reports from Mexico and Peru that the skin of the fruit is active against parasitic intestinal worms. Unspecified parts of the plant have also been occasionally used in treatment of cancer of the labia and tumours.

    Kew's studies of anti-malarial plants

    Kew botanist William Milliken has studied the traditional anti-malarial plants in the state of Roraima in Brazil. During these studies, a member of the Wapixana tribe reported that  Persea americana  ('abacate') leaves were used as an anti-malarial and an infusion of the fallen leaves of the abacate tree mixed with the roots of a grass,  Cenchrus echinatus .

    Alternatively, a decoction of the abacate stone with an unspecified part of the plant  Scoparia dulcis  (a member of the figwort family, Scrophulariaceae) was used.  Persea americana  is one of the 22 species of anti-malarial plants recorded for the Wapixana.

    Cultivation

    Although it is possible to grow avocados easily from seed, commercial growers tend to use grafting or layering (two methods of vegetative propagation) in order to maintain a consistent fruit quality. Avocados grow best in deep, well-drained soil and should be protected from frost and strong winds where relevant. A thick mulch should be placed around the plants and fertiliser should be applied occasionally.

    Plants can be pruned to achieve a more spreading habit, but care should be taken as the wood is weak and tends to break. Fruits do not ripen until they are removed from the tree, and hence can be left on the plant as a method of storage. Avocados can suffer from infestations of scale insects, mites, leaf-spotting diseases and root-rots.

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of  Persea americana  are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world by appointment. The details of some of these, including images, can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of the wood and seeds of  Persea americana  are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Mexico
    Ecology
    Cloud forests and lower slopes of rainforests, on well-drained soils.
    Conservation
    Not assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria. Widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    Avocado fruits, leaves, stems and seeds are poisonous to many animals and birds.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Edible fruits, traditional medicine, cosmetics.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Burkina, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Fiji, Galápagos, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Solomon Is., Sudan, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Avocado

    Persea americana Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 3, 2008 Barrios, S. [33], Montserrat 76684.000
    Feb 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1547], Cameroon K000008434
    Jan 1, 2002 Galeotti, H. [7010], Oaxaca K000576108 syntype
    Jan 20, 1989 Nee, M. [26091], Mexico K000764365
    Jan 20, 1989 Pennington, T.D. [9134], Mexico K000764366
    Hughes, J. [264], Tanzania 5529.000
    Bates [s.n.], Mexico K000764357
    Liebmann [89], Mexico K000764354
    Woronow, G. [2717], Mexico K000764356
    Botteri [948], Mexico K000764361
    Berlandier [s.n.], Mexico K000764360
    Schaffner, J.G. [116], Mexico K000764363
    Schaffner, J.G. [s.n.], Mexico K000764362
    Sanders, A.C. [10661], Mexico K000764358
    Gonzalez Ortega, J. [1684], Mexico K000764359
    Gonzalez Ortega, J. [853], Mexico K000764355
    [Schiede] [s.n.], Mexico K000602003
    Bilimeck [356], Mexico K000764364
    Hinton, G.B. [6215], Mexico Persea americana var. drimyfolia K000764367
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6348] Persea gratissima K001123638

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: s.p. (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Köhler, E., Rohwer, J.G., Lepper, L. & Gutiérrez Amaro, J.E. (2014). Flora de la republica de Cuba : Serie A, Plantas vasculares 19: 1-124, 1-86, 1-54.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Rodrigues de Moraes, P.L. (2013). The collections of Lauraceae in the herbarium of Henri Van Heurck (AWH) Plant Ecology and Evolution 146: 360-383.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Rodrigues de Moraes, P.L. (2012). The Lauraceae collected in Brazil by Ludwig Riedel - I Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 185-216.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Niembro Rocas, A., Vázquez Torres, M. & Sáchez Sáchez, O. (2010). Árboles de Veracruz 100 especies para la reforstación estratégica: 1-253. Gombierno del Estado de Veracruz, México.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (1982). Flore des Mascareignes 153-160: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Merck Veterinary Manual (2011).  Avocado.
    • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009).  The New Oxford Book of Food Plants, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press.
    • Mabberley, D. J. (2008).  Mabberley’s Plant-book; a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Cambridge University Press, New York.
    • Lorenzi, H., Bacher, L., Lacerda, M. & Sartori, S. (2006).  Brazilian Fruits and Cultivated Exotics (for Consuming in Natura). Intituto Plantarum da Estudos da Flora, São Paulo.
    • Whiley, A. W., Schaffer, B. & Wolstenholme, B N. (eds) (2002).  The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
    • Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999).  The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, Volume 3 (L to Q). Macmillan Reference, London.
    • Milliken, W. (1997). Traditional anti-malaria medicine in Roraima, Brazil.  Economic Botany 51: 212–237.
    • Burkill, H. M. (1995).  The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, Volume 3, Families J-L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gilman, E. & Watson, D. (1994).  Persea americana (avocado). Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainsville.
    • Williams, L. O. (1977). The avocados, a sypnopsis of the genus  Persea subgen.  Persea. Economic Botany 31: 315–320.
    • Kopp, L. E. (1966). A taxonomic revision of the genus Persea in the Western Hemisphere (Perseae-Lauraceae).  Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 14: 1–20.
    • Hernandez, F. (1695).  Nova plantarum, animalium et mineralium Mexicanorum historia.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Niembro Rocas, A., Vázquez Torres, M. & Sáchez Sáchez, O. (2010). Árboles de Veracruz 100 especies para la reforstación estratégica: 1-253. Gombierno del Estado de Veracruz, México.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (1982). Flore des Mascareignes 153-160: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0