1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Lantana L.
      1. Lantana camara L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Erect or spreading much-branched, square-stemmed shrub
    Prickles
    Usually with short prickles (var. aculeata (Linn.) Moldenke)
    Flowers
    Showy flowers in convex heads 1-2 in. across.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type a cultivated specimen, Linnaean Herbarium no. 783/4 (LINN, lectotype).
    General
    Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic
    Ecology
    In dense thickets by roadsides, in forest clearings, pine plantations and old cultivations, occasional in deciduous woodlands and grassland; 0–2000 m.
    Note
    In the Flora Zambesiaca area a range of forms based on corolla colour may be recognized, and the following corolla colour variations occur: yellow and orange (in the same head), yellow-orange fading to red, yellow and red, orange and pink, yellow in the outer whorls and pink in the inner, white suffused with pale or mauve-pink towards edges and with an orange-yellow throat, all bright orange, all yellow, all pink with yellow throat, all mauve, all white.
    Distribution
    In some parts it forms widespread uncontrollable thickets, and for this reason has been declared a noxious weed in Zambia and Zimbabwe.  Certain cultivars are sterile and innocuous. Native of tropical and subtropical America, and introduced in the tropics where it is cultivated as a garden ornamental and hedge plant.  It is now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT N, BOT W, BOT C, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Mozambique
    Habit
    Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic.
    Stem
    Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches. Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender. Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender
    Peduncles
    Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands. Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands
    Flowers
    Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose. Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin. Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin
    Corolla
    Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded. Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded
    Fruits
    Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening. Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Mostly a spreading, rather unpleasantly aromatic shrub 0.35–5 m. tall but can be scandent to 12 m. or even in cultivation over a long period become a tree to 8 m. with a bole 10–12 cm. diameter; stems ± square, almost completely unarmed to slightly or copiously and viciously covered with recurved prickles.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, ovate to ovate-oblong, 2–12 cm. long, 2–7 cm. wide, mostly fairly small, acute at apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate or rarely subcordate at base, scabrid with coarse tubercule-based hairs and rugose with impressed venation above, ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on raised venation, closely crenate-serrate; petioles 0.7–2 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary ± flat heads 2–3(–5) cm. diameter, the axis 0.5–1 cm. long; peduncles 1.5–10 cm. long; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–8(–13) mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx very thin, ± 3 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla very variously coloured, red, purple, pink with yellow centre, salmon, orange, pure yellow, white, etc., sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer, e.g. yellow and red; tube 0.8–1.3 cm. long, densely puberulous outside; limb 4–9 mm. wide, the lobes oblong to rounded, up to 5 mm. wide.
    Fruits
    Drupes fleshy, purple or black, 3–5(–7) mm. diameter (dry); pyrene essentially ovoid, 6 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, laterally somewhat like the head of a bird with a narrower and a wider portion, the latter more rugose and crenate where the two join.
    Habitat
    Forming dense thickets, by roadsides, in forest clearings, old cultivations, etc.; 0–2040 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U1 U4 Z probably originally native of the W. Indies, now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Bermuda, Cook Is., Fiji, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, India, Italy, Kenya, Nauru, Niue, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Zaïre

    Lantana camara L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1998 Irwin, H.S. [14949], Brazil K000837890
    Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [1384], Brazil K000837889
    Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [182], Brazil K000837884
    Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000837885
    Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [786], Brazil K000837886
    Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [1732], Brazil K000837887
    Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10551], Brazil K000837883
    Jan 1, 1997 Fritz Muller [144], Brazil K000837891
    Jan 1, 1975 Luetzelburg, P.V. [26850], Brazil K000837876
    Stirton, C.H. [10554], South Africa 50271.000
    Stirton, C.H. [10583], South Africa 50275.000
    Stirton, C.H. [10631], South Africa 50279.000
    Stirton, C.H. [10588], South Africa 50282.000
    Welwitsch [5765], Angola K001009733
    Welwitsch [5650], Angola K001009871
    Welwitsch [5715], Angola K001009872
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000837875
    Mueller, F. [377], Brazil K000837879
    Reverchon, E. [s.n.], Spain K000759910
    Dusén, P. [8735], Brazil K000837880
    Soares, A. [243], Brazil K000837877
    Traill, J.W.H. [662], Brazil K000837878
    Regnell, A.F. [336], Brazil K000837882
    Burchell [9229], Brazil K000837881
    Burchell [902], Brazil K000837888

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
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    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Sanders, R.W. (2012). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic revision Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6: 403-441.
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    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
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    • Sanders, R.W. (2006). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): I. Correct application of Lantana camara and associated names Sida 22: 381-421.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
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    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Zappi, D.C. & al. (2003). Lista das plantas vasculares de Catoles Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 21(2): 345-398.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
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    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/