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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[FWTA]

Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect or spreading much-branched, square-stemmed shrub
Morphology General Prickles
Usually with short prickles (var. aculeata (Linn.) Moldenke)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Showy flowers in convex heads 1-2 in. across.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2800 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb, shrub or creeper.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Vernacular
Mabizou, bwa wa tau.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Type
Type a cultivated specimen, Linnaean Herbarium no. 783/4 (LINN, lectotype).
Morphology General
Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening. Drupes 3–6 mm in diameter, purple-black to black on ripening.
Ecology
In dense thickets by roadsides, in forest clearings, pine plantations and old cultivations, occasional in deciduous woodlands and grassland; 0–2000 m.
Note
In the Flora Zambesiaca area a range of forms based on corolla colour may be recognized, and the following corolla colour variations occur: yellow and orange (in the same head), yellow-orange fading to red, yellow and red, orange and pink, yellow in the outer whorls and pink in the inner, white suffused with pale or mauve-pink towards edges and with an orange-yellow throat, all bright orange, all yellow, all pink with yellow throat, all mauve, all white.
Distribution
District code: BOT N, BOT SE, BOT N, BOT W, BOT C, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. In some parts it forms widespread uncontrollable thickets, and for this reason has been declared a noxious weed in Zambia and Zimbabwe.  Certain cultivars are sterile and innocuous. Native of tropical and subtropical America, and introduced in the tropics where it is cultivated as a garden ornamental and hedge plant.  It is now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. Botswana Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi Mozambique
Morphology General Habit
Mostly a spreading shrub 0.35–5 m tall, forming dense thickets, or scandent to c. 10 m (or a tree to 8 m tall), strongly aromatic.
Morphology Stem
Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches. Stem and branches 4-angled, unarmed to slightly or copiously covered with recurved prickles, ± scabridulous and sparsely to densely hispid or strigose, sometimes with short gland-tipped hairs intermixed on peduncles and branchlets, ± densely sessile glandular towards the end of peduncles and branches
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender. Leaves opposite, petiolate; (3)4–11 × (2)2.8–6(7) cm, broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or ± acuminate at the apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate at the base or sometimes subcordate, coarsely to closely crenate or crenulate on the margins, scabrid with coarse tubercle-based hairs on the upper surface ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on the raised venation, rugulose with impressed venation above, raised reticulate beneath; petiole 0.7–2 cm long, slender
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands. Peduncles axillary, erect or ascending, 2–10 cm long at anthesis, becoming rigid, thickening toward the apex, hardly elongating in fruit, hispid to strigose and with small sessile glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose. Flowers in ± flat corymbiform heads, 2–5 cm in diameter with axis 6–12 mm long, hardly elongating in fruit; bracts 4–13 × 1–1.5 mm, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, attenuate and acute or subobtuse at apex, shortly strigose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin. Calyx c. 3 mm long, very thin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded. Corolla variously coloured, orange, red, pink, mauve, pure yellow or white, often with a yellow or orange centre, young flowers pale changing to a deeper or a different colour with age, sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer; tube 10–12 mm long, narrow in the lower half, widening slightly above, slightly curved, puberulous outside; limb 6–9 mm in diameter, lobes up to 5 mm wide and oblong to rounded

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto, trepadora
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub, up to 2 m or more tall, mostly ± armed with recurved prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite; blades ovate to ovate-oblong, 2–12 x 2–7 cm, acute at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, closely crenate-serrate, scabrid, with impressed venation above; petiole 7–20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary ± flat heads 2–3(–5) cm in diam., the axis 0.5–1 cm long; peduncle 1.5–10 cm long; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–8(–13) x 1–1.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx c. 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla red, purple, pink, orange, yellow or white; tube 8–13 mm long, densely puberulous outside; limb 4–9 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes purple or black, 3–5(–7) mm in diam.
Distribution
N1; S2 probably originally from the West Indies, now widespread in all tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1000 m.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Mostly a spreading, rather unpleasantly aromatic shrub 0.35–5 m. tall but can be scandent to 12 m. or even in cultivation over a long period become a tree to 8 m. with a bole 10–12 cm. diameter; stems ± square, almost completely unarmed to slightly or copiously and viciously covered with recurved prickles.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, ovate to ovate-oblong, 2–12 cm. long, 2–7 cm. wide, mostly fairly small, acute at apex, rounded to broadly or narrowly cuneate or rarely subcordate at base, scabrid with coarse tubercule-based hairs and rugose with impressed venation above, ± pubescent or glabrescent beneath but scabrid on raised venation, closely crenate-serrate; petioles 0.7–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary ± flat heads 2–3(–5) cm. diameter, the axis 0.5–1 cm. long; peduncles 1.5–10 cm. long; bracts linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 4–8(–13) mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx very thin, ± 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla very variously coloured, red, purple, pink with yellow centre, salmon, orange, pure yellow, white, etc., sometimes the inner flowers a different colour from the outer, e.g. yellow and red; tube 0.8–1.3 cm. long, densely puberulous outside; limb 4–9 mm. wide, the lobes oblong to rounded, up to 5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes fleshy, purple or black, 3–5(–7) mm. diameter (dry); pyrene essentially ovoid, 6 mm. long, 3.5 mm. wide, laterally somewhat like the head of a bird with a narrower and a wider portion, the latter more rugose and crenate where the two join.
Habitat
Forming dense thickets, by roadsides, in forest clearings, old cultivations, etc.; 0–2040 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 U1 U4 Z probably originally native of the W. Indies, now naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres

>

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Cook Is., Fiji, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, India, Italy, Kenya, Nauru, Niue, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Zaïre

English
Red sage
French
Mille fleurs.
Spanish
Sanguinaria, cinco negritos, venturosa cariaquita, gurupacha, carraquillo, siete negritos.

Lantana camara L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1998 Irwin, H.S. [14949], Brazil K000837890
Jan 1, 1998 Gardner [1384], Brazil K000837889
Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [182], Brazil K000837884
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K000837885
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [786], Brazil K000837886
Jan 1, 1998 Burchell [1732], Brazil K000837887
Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10551], Brazil K000837883
Jan 1, 1997 Fritz Muller [144], Brazil K000837891
Jan 1, 1975 Luetzelburg, P.V. [26850], Brazil K000837876
Stirton, C.H. [10554], South Africa 50271.000
Stirton, C.H. [10583], South Africa 50275.000
Stirton, C.H. [10631], South Africa 50279.000
Stirton, C.H. [10588], South Africa 50282.000
Welwitsch [5765], Angola K001009733
Welwitsch [5650], Angola K001009871
Welwitsch [5715], Angola K001009872
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000837875
Mueller, F. [377], Brazil K000837879
Reverchon, E. [s.n.], Spain K000759910
Dusén, P. [8735], Brazil K000837880
Soares, A. [243], Brazil K000837877
Traill, J.W.H. [662], Brazil K000837878
Regnell, A.F. [336], Brazil K000837882
Burchell [9229], Brazil K000837881
Burchell [902], Brazil K000837888

First published in Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2012). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic revision Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6: 403-441.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Ramella, L. & Perret, P. (eds.) (2009). Notulae ad Floram Paraquaiensem, 101-104 Candollea 64: 295-308.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2006). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): I. Correct application of Lantana camara and associated names Sida 22: 381-421.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Zappi, D.C. & al. (2003). Lista das plantas vasculares de Catoles Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 21(2): 345-398.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 502.
  • F.T.A. 5: 275
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 627 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Flora Zambesiaca

  • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 976 (2002).
  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 39 (1992).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61 : 131 (1989), in adnot.
  • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 229 (1983).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 57 (1973).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 58 (1973).
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  • Myre, Algumas Plantas nocivas [Inst. Inv. Cient. Mocambique]: 9, fig. 1–3 (1964).
  • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 435 (1963).
  • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962) excl. spec. White 1807 pro parte.
  • Résumé Verbenaceae: 458 (Taxon. Index, 1959)
  • Moldenke, Résumé Verbenaceae: 458 (Taxon. Index, 1959).
  • Fl. Cuba 4 : 287, fig. 123B (1957)*.
  • Leon & Alain, Fl. Cuba 4 : 287 (1957).
  • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb., II] 12 : 166 (1954).
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  • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
  • Blumea 5 : 69 (1942).
  • Lilloa 4 : 288 (1939)
  • Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 269 (1931).
  • J. Bot. 68 , Suppl. 2 (Gamopet.): 139 (1930).
  • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 7 : 38 (1920).
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  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 600 (1847).
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  • Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2 : 140 (1806).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Gonçales Salimenas, F.R. & al. (2016). Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 47: 1-157. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • Sanders, R.W. (2012). Taxonomy of Lantana sect. Lantana (Verbenaceae): II. Taxonomic revision Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6: 403-441.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 61: 125–214 (1989).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 398, t. 704 (1987).
  • Sanders in Syst. Bot. 12(1): 44–60, fig. 9 (1987).
  • Nash & Nee, Fl. Veracruz 41: 70 (1984) (extensive synonymy).
  • Sinha & Sharma in F. Fedde, Repertorium Speciorum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 95: 621–633 (1984) (extensive biological references).
  • Spies in S. Afr. Journ. Bot. 3: 231–250 (1984) (cytotaxonomy).
  • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 220 (1983) (extensive bibliography, synonymy and uses).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. Kenya: 109, 31/197 (1982).
  • Spies & Stirton in Bothalia 14: 101–111 (1982).
  • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 223, fig. 35/5 (1980).
  • Townsend, Fl. Iraq 4: 656 (1980).
  • Jafri & Ghafour in Fl. W. Pakistan 77: 9 (1974).
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 172 (1969).
  • Ivens, E. Afr. Weeds: 65 (1967).
  • Meikle in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 435 (1963).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 368 (1962).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 586 (1961).
  • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 117, 239 (1957).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 639 (1949).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 326 (1949).
  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 275 (1900).
  • Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11: 598 (1847).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 627 (1753).

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