1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Acacia Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is W. Indian Ocean, Socotra, India, Vietnam to Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing; the native species in our area almost invariably armed with prickles or spines, the introduced ones usually unarmed.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2-pinnate or (in introduced species) often modified to phyllodes (entire leaflike often flattened organs without pinnae or leaflets); pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets; gland on the upper side of the petiole usually present; glands also often present at the insertion of the pinnae.
    Flowers
    Flowers in spikes, spiciform racemes or round heads, hermaphrodite or male and hermaphrodite; if in heads then central flowers not enlarged and modified; inflorescences usually axillary, racemose or paniculate.
    Calyx
    Calyx (in our species) gamosepalous, subtruncate or usually with 4-5 teeth or lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla 4-5(7)-lobed.
    Stamens
    Stamens many, fertile, their filaments free or (in A. albida and A. eriocarpa) connate into a tube at their extreme base only; anthers (at least some) glandular at the apex, or all eglandular (in all native species glandular except in A. albida, in introduced species mostly eglandular).
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate to sessile, glabrous to puberulous.
    Fruits
    Pods very variable, dehiscent or sometimes indehiscent, flat, ± compressed, or sometimes cylindric, straight, curved, spiral or contorted, continuous or moniliform.
    Seeds
    Seeds unwinged, often with a hard smooth testa, without endosperm.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing; the native species in our area almost invariably armed with prickles or spines, the introduced ones usually unarmed
    Leaves
    Leaves bipinnate or (in introduced species) often modified to phyllodes (entire, leaf-like often flattened organs, without pinnae or leaflets); pinnae each with one to many pairs of leaflets; gland on upper side of petiole usually present; glands often also present at insertion of pinnae
    Flowers
    Flowers in spikes, spiciform racemes or round heads, hermaphrodite or male and hermaphrodite; if in heads then central flowers not enlarged and modified; inflorescences usually axillary, racemose or paniculate
    Calyx
    Calyx (in our species) gamosepalous, subtruncate or usually with 4–5 teeth or lobes
    Corolla
    Corolla 4–5(–7)-lobed
    Stamens
    Stamens many (from 35–40 in A. lahai to about 215 in A. thomasii) , fertile, their filaments free or (in A. albida) connate into a tube at their extreme base only; anthers (at least some) glandular at apex, or all eglandular (in all native species glandular except in A. albida, in introduced species mostly eglandular)
    Ovary
    Ovary stipitate to sessile, glabrous to puberulous
    Fruits
    Pods very variable, dehiscent or sometimes indehiscent, flat, ± compressed, or sometimes cylindrical, straight, curved, spiral or contorted, continuous or moniliform
    Seeds
    Seeds unwinged, often with a hard smooth testa, without endosperm.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Tribe Acacieae is widely attributed to Bentham (1842), e.g., Vassal (1981) and Maslin et al. (2001), but Reveal (1997) gives Dumortier (1829) as the first place of publication of the tribe and this is confirmed by Brummitt (pers. comm., 2004). The genus Faidherbia A.Chev. was included in the Acacieae by Vassal (1981), and is still retained as part of the tribe by Maslin et al. (2003). The tribal position of Faidherbia remains equivocal, although Lewis & Rico Arce (this volume) place the genus in tribe Ingeae following Polhill (1994) and Luckow et al. (2003) rendering the Acacieae monogeneric, with the single genus Acacia. The taxonomic status of Acacia and its relationship to other mimosoid genera is, however, as yet unresolved. At present three subgenera are recognised within Acacia sens. lat.: Acacia, Aculeiferum and Phyllodineae. Pedley (1986) proposed that these three subgenera be given generic rank, namely Acacia, Senegalia Raf. and Racosperma Mart., respectively, but this was not widely adopted, although the debate surrounding these suggested nomenclatural changes continues. Pedley (2003) has recently published combinations (several hundred of which are new) in Racosperma for all Australian phyllodinous acacias. What is clear is that the genus Acacia, as currently circumscribed, is not monophyletic (Maslin et al., 2003; Miller & Bayer, 2003; Miller et al., 2003), and at least five genera should be resurrected or newly described from within it in due course. The five genera correspond to those recognised by Pedley except that Senegalia sens. lat. is regarded as comprising three genera: Senegalia sens. strict., Acaciella Britton & Rose (synonym Acacia subgenus Aculeiferum section Filicinae (Benth.) Taub.), and an undescribed genus based on Acacia coulteri Benth. and a small group of related species. Acacia subgenus Acacia appears more closely related to tribe Mimoseae and subgenus Phyllodineae nests within the Ingeae in most recent studies (Luckow et al., 2003). While these two taxa are not moved out of the Acacieae in this treatment, this seems a likely future consequence of recent research. Removal of Acacia sens. strict. from the Acacieae would leave the tribe without its type genus so that Acacieae could then no longer be retained. It is not appropriate here to reinstate, change or describe new generic names, especially as application of the names Acacia and Racosperma are currently under review (Maslin et al. 2003, Orchard & Maslin, 2003; Luckow et al., submitted b). A proposal to retypify Acacia based on an Australian taxon (Orchard & Maslin, 2003) has recently been passed by the Committee for Spermatophyta but this decision awaits ratification. The present treatment of the Acacieae thus recognises a single genus containing c. 1450 species (Fig. 26).

    Vernacular
    florists' mimosa
    Habit
    Armed or unarmed trees, shrubs and lianas
    Ecology
    Wide ranging in habitat, from rain forest to alpine communities, dominant shrubs and trees in seasonally dry tropical and subtropical bushland, woodland, wooded grassland, coastal dunes and deserts
    Distribution
    Acacia sens. strict. (syn.: Acacia subg. Acacia; Vachellia), c. 161 spp., pantropical (73 in Africa and Madagascar of which c. 15 extend to Asia, 21 restricted to Asia, 7 in Australia and the Pacific; c. 60 spp. in the New World, of which c. 35 in N and C America and c. 25 in S America); Senegalia (syn.: Acacia subg. Aculeiferum sens.strict.), c. 207 spp., pantropical (69 in Africa and Madagascar, of which 7 extend to Asia, 36 restricted to Asia, 2 in Australia and the Pacific [1 extending to Asia]; c. 100 New World of which c. 40 in N and C America, c. 60 in S. America); Acaciella (syn.: Acacia subg. Aculeiferum sect. Filicinae), 15 spp. restricted to the Neotropics (mainly Mexico and C America but extending thinly to S America); Gen nov. (the 'Acacia coulteri' group), 13 spp. restricted to N and C America; 'Racosperma' (syn.: Acacia subg. Phyllodineae), c. 1045 spp. in Australia (of which 941 endemic and 7 extending to Asia, and c. 100 spp. new and yet to be described fide Maslin et al., 2003), 7 in the Pacific, 3 confined to Asia, 2 in Madagascar and the Mascarenes
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Leaves, fruits, wood and bark of many species are used for livestock fodder (although pods and leaves of some yield toxic cyanogenic glycosides), timber (construction, handicrafts, utensils, implements), famine food, firewood, charcoal, medicine, tanning leather (e.g., A. mearnsii De Wild., black wattle ) and oils in aromatherapy; many species important in agroforestry systems (e.g., A. mangium Willd., mangium or brown salwood , grown widely as a plantation species in Asia); some species planted as ornamentals, cut flowers of A.dealbata Link and a few other species are sold as 'florists' mimosa' ; many species are good bee forage; flowers of A. farnesiana (L.) Willd. are used in the perfume industry; several species a major source of gum arabic although A. senegal (L.) Willd. is the 'true gum arabic' ; many African species are multi-purpose trees with a wide range of local uses (see Burkill, 1995: 177-203); in Australia used in rehabilitation and soil improvement programmes, waterproof glue production, pulp, for tools, aboriginal weapons and musical instruments; seeds have minor use as human food

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Fiji, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Socotra, Solomon Is., South Australia, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tonga, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Algeria, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Ascension, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Marianas, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sicilia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tokelau-Manihiki, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Acacia Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bally, P.R.O. [B14409], Kenya 2700.048
    Pennington, R.T. [154], Bolivia 29047.762
    Rico, L. [1960], Dominican Republic 77450.000
    Passos, L. [39], Bahia K000850959
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], São Paulo K000868477
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], São Paulo K000868478

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Benth. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 444 (1875).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 337
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gard. Dict., abridg. ed. 4 (1754)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gard. Dict., abridg. ed.: 4 (1754)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/