1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Ipomoea L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.

    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Annuals, biennials or perennials, herbaceous, suffruticose or sometimes woody plants.
    Stem
    Stems woody or herbaceous, usually twining or prostrate, sometimes erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves petioleate or rarely sessile exceedingly variable in shape and size, entire or lobed to deeply divided, simple or rarely compound; pseudo-stipules sometimes present.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, solitary or in few to many-flowered cymes, sometimes aggregated at the apices of shoots pseudo-capitate, or enclosed in an involucre or in cymes, rarely forming a terminal leafy panicle; peduncles short or long, rarely almost nil; pedicels usually distinct, rarely almost nil; bracts and bracteoles various, sometimes leafy, free or forming an involucre.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, very variable in size and shape, often unequal, membranaceous to coriaceous, persistent, often more or less enlarged in fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually regular, rarely faintly zygomorphic, usually funnel-shaped or the tube somewhat campanulate, sometimes hypocrateriform, usually not conspicuously lobed, variously coloured.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, usually unequal, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, subincluded or sometimes exserted; filaments filiform or somewhat linear, often dilated and hairy or papillate at the base; anthers ovate to linear; pollen globose, spinose or spinulose.
    Disc
    Disk annular.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-3-4, or rarely 5-locular, usually 4-ovuled, rarely with 6–10 ovules; style filiform, included to exserted; stigma 2-globular.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose to avoid, 3–10-valved.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually 4 (rarely less by abortion or up to 10), glabrous, pubescent or clothed (sometimes only partly) with very long hairs.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs or shrubs; stems woody or herbaceous, prostrate, twining or erect
    Indumentum
    Indumentum in the African species never stellate
    Leaves
    Leaves exceedingly variable, entire or lobed, simple or rarely compound; pseudo-stipules sometimes present
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered cymes, sometimes aggregated at the apices of shoots or enclosed in an involucre
    Calyx
    Sepals very variable in size and shape, often unequal, foliaceous to coriaceous
    Corolla
    Corolla regular, usually funnel-shaped, rarely trumpet-shaped, the limb sometimes salver-shaped, usually not conspicuously lobed, variously coloured
    Pollen
    Pollen spinose or spinulose (Fig. 22/8, p. 131)
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-, 3-, 4- or rarely 5-locular, usually 4-ovuled, rarely 6–10–ovuled.; style filiform; stigma biglobular
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid or globose, 3–10–valved
    Seeds
    Seeds usually 4 (rarely 3 or up to 10), glabrous, pubescent or clothed (sometimes only partly) with very long hairs.
    [KBu]

    Wood JRL & Scotland RW. 2017. Notes on Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) from the Amazonian periphery. Kew Bulletin. 72:10. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9682-9

    Ecology
    Apparently growing in cloud forest near streams in the coastal sierra of Venezuela between 1500 and 1800 m approximately.
    Conservation
    Based on an area of occurrence of slightly more than 17,000 km this species might be classified as Vulnerable (VU) but based on an area of occupancy of 24,000 km2 it might be classified as Endangered (EN). Given the relative accessibility of the cloud forest in Andean Venezuela over more than 150 years and the paucity of records, the categorisation of Endangered (EN) would seem correct, particularly as several of the recorded sites linear centres of population. Some populations may lie within one or more of the protected areas established in Andean Venezuela but this requires confirmation.
    Note
    Map 4 shows the somewhat disjunct populations of Ipomoea retropilosa in Venezuela. Although there is variation in the density of the indumentum, no clear geographical patterning in this variation was observed. Plants nearly identical to Ipomoea retropilosa also grow very locally in Colombia but differ in the completely glabrous sepals. In the absence of any other discernible differences we treat this distinct population as a subspecies as follows:
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, lianas or small trees, white latex sometimes present, habit various but most commonly twining or sprawling, frequently trailing, less often ascending or erect; rootstock varied but at least sometimes thickened and tuberous, unknown in many species; indumentum usually of simple eglandular hairs but occasionally branched, stellate or (very rarely) T-shaped in form
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, without stipules, most commonly petiolate, ovate with a truncate, cordate or sagittate base, less commonly and principally in the erect species sessile or shortly petiolate, oblong, obovate or linear with a cuneate or attenuate base
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of usually pedunculate, axillary cymes borne in the axils of the upper leaves, the cymes often compounded with secondary and tertiary peduncles, sometimes corymbose or racemose in form, occasionally aggregated into terminal panicles, very occasionally arising on small axillary branchlets; bracteoles present but often caducous and inconspicuous; calyx of 5 free sepals, these similar or not, the outer two often similar and differing from the inner two with the middle sepal somewhat intermediate in form, inner sepals commonly with scarious margins; corolla very varied in colour and form but usually conspicuous and often open for a short time (morning or night only), commonly pink, less commonly blue, red, cream or white, commonly funnel-shaped and gradually widened with a broad spreading unlobed (sometimes weakly lobed) limb, less commonly campanulate, or crateriform with a cylindrical tube, more rarely suburceolate with the limb reduced to five teeth; stamens 5 unequal, two usually distinctly longer than the other three, inserted near the base of the tube, usually included, sometimes equal, exserted; filaments usually hairy at base, glabrous above, anthers linear-oblong, pollen globose, echinulate; ovary bilocular (trilocular in a few species), style 1, stigma globose, sometimes clearly bi- or trilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule, usually glabrous, 1 – 6-seeded but mostly 4-seeded, the style persistent or not on the ripening capsule; seeds very varied in indumentum, glabrous, minutely puberulent or tomentellous or conspicuously pilose or lanate, the longer hairs often restricted to the angles of the seeds.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Herbaceous twiner
    Leaves
    Leaves usually lobed
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary, peduncled, few- to several-flowered monochasial cymes, often secund
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, subequal, with awn-like appendages
    Corolla
    Corolla narrowly tubular at the base, tubular or urceolate above, slightly curved, with 5-toothed mouth
    Stamens
    Stamens and style long-exserted; pollen spinulose
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous, 4-locular, each loculus with one ovule; style 1, filiform; stigma bicapitate
    Fruits
    Capsule 4-locular, 4-valved, with up to 4 glabrous seeds
    Note
    This monotypic genus has usually been considered a part of Ipomoea sect. Quamoclit, but the curved corolla and long-exserted genitalia are very distinctive.
    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Calyx
    Sepals 5, subequal, herbaceous, distinctly aristate, not enlarged in fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla narrowly tubular at the base, tubular or urceolate above, slightly curved, with a slightly constricted 5-toothed mouth.
    Stamens
    Stamens long-exserted; filaments inserted at the apex of the narrow basal tubular part of the corolla; pollen globular, spinulose.
    Disc
    Disk annular.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous, 4-locular, each loculus with one ovule; style 1, long-exserted, filiform; stigma bicapitate.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4-locular, 4-valved.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4 or less, glabrous.
    Habit
    Herbaceous twiner.
    Leaves
    Leaves petioled, entire or mostly palmately lobed.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary, peduncled few to several-flowered monochasial cymes, often secund, pedicels short; bracts minute.
    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    A scarcely natural genus, similar to Ipomoea but differing in having an indehiscent ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid fruit, mostly with a single puberulous seed.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Similar in habit and most characters to Ipomoea but differing in having an indehiscent ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid fruit, mostly with a single puberulous seed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Maine, New Hampshire

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Bismarck Archipelago, British Columbia, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, France, Inner Mongolia, Juan Fernández Is., Kirgizstan, Korea, Maine, Masachusettes, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Zealand South, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Oman, Oregon, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, St.Helena, Transcaucasus, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Washington, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

    Ipomoea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cruse, A.W. [396], Zambia 11182.000
    Fanshawe, D.B. [5680] 1108.000
    Harley, R.M. [25707], Brazil K000944618
    Harley, R.M. [18060], Brazil K000944771
    Harley, R.M. [17139], Brazil K000944770
    Watermeyer [127], Tanzania 24509.000
    Meikle [589], Nigeria 54768.000
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K000944768
    Agra, M.F. [647], Brazil K000944616
    Saar, E. [5254], Brazil K000944614
    Miers, J. [3692], Brazil K000944765
    Basedow, H. [177], Australia K000357299
    Tschá, M.C. [323], Brazil K000944611
    Figueirêdo, L.S. [409], Brazil K000944617
    Rosa, N.A. [4047], Brazil K000944609
    Boog [7] K000944610
    Glaziou, A. [13029], Brazil K000944612
    Glaziou, A. [8819], Brazil K000944613
    Gardner [6072], Brazil K000944767
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000944769
    Martius [957], Brazil K000944766
    Glaziou [9977], Brazil K000944764

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 159 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Green, P.S. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Australia 49: 305-310. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Yamazaki, T. (1993). Fl. Japan Convolvulaceae Flora of Japan IIIa: 195-205. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
    • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Allan, H.H. (1982). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae-indigenous Flora of New Zealand 1: 835-841+1034. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
    • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Las especies americanas de Ipomoea L. sect. Quamoclit (Moench) Griseb. Lilloa 29: 19-86. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1958). Some notes on tropical African Convolvulaceae Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 13: 321-329.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
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    Literature

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