1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Agrostis L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Temp. to Tropical Mountains.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, 1-flowered, hermaphrodite, relatively small, laterally compressed, awned or awnless, narrowly lanceolate to oblong, often gaping; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes, sometimes produced beyond the floret into a slender awn-like bristle of varying length.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, persistent, subequal, 1- (rarely 3-) nerved, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, rarely oblong, apex acute or acuminate, awnless, usually membranous.
    Lemma
    Lemma 3-5-nerved, broadly oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic when expanded, thinly membranous or hyaline, apex usually truncate sometimes slightly emarginate, awnless or dorsally awned or rarely with the apex awned between 2 short lobes (in this case the awn straight), glabrous or dorsally pilose, the lateral nerves sometimes excurrent into short mucros; callus short, obtuse, glabrous or bearded.
    Palea
    Palea as long as but usually shorter than the lemma, sometimes reduced to a small scale or completely absent, faintly 2-nerved, hyaline.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, usually lanceolate, hyaline.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous; styles 2, rather short, with the stigmas laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis free, oblong or elliptic-oblong in outline, longitudinally grooved; embryo short, not longer than 1/4 the length of the caryopsis; hilum basal, punctiform or linear to narrowly oblong.
    Habit
    Annual or perennial grasses.
    Ligules
    Ligule a membrane, sometimes lacerate, scarious to hyaline.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a many-flowered panicle, usually much divided, effuse or contracted, seldom spike-like.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (66), or perennial (183). Rhizomes absent (205), or short (21), or elongated (22). Stolons absent (233), or present (13). Culms erect (138/184), or geniculately ascending (91/184), or decumbent (22/184), or prostrate (1/184); slender (23/30), or weak (7/30); 1-37.94-150 cm long; without nodal roots (5/14), or rooting from lower nodes (14/14). Culm-internodes terete (5/6), or elliptical in section (1/6). Lateral branches lacking (50/53), or sparse (6/53), or ample (1/53). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (239), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (1). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (239), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (239), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades aciculate (4), or filiform (39), or linear (200), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (238), or coriaceous (2); stiff (14), or firm (216), or flaccid (10).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (239), or a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); not deciduous as a whole (221), or deciduous as a whole (19); exserted (227), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (16). Peduncle persistent (224), or fracturing (16). Panicle open (176/239), or contracted (57/239), or spiciform (19/239), or capitate (1/239). Primary panicle branches not whorled (176/239), or whorled at lower nodes (16/239), or whorled at most nodes (48/239). Spikelets appressed (4/7), or ascending (1/7), or spreading (2/7); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (30/50), or linear (1/50), or clavate (19/50); tip rectangular (2/19), or widened (17/19).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (192/236), or with a barren rhachilla extension (58/236), or with diminished florets at the apex (1/236). Spikelets linear (1/239), or lanceolate (90/239), or elliptic (142/239), or oblong (27/239), or cuneate (3/239); laterally compressed; 0.6-2.986-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/4); base obtuse (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (63/198), or sparsely hairy (15/198), or pubescent (97/198), or pilose (26/198), or bearded (8/198).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (192/236), or with a barren rhachilla extension (58/236), or with diminished florets at the apex (1/236). Spikelets linear (1/239), or lanceolate (90/239), or elliptic (142/239), or oblong (27/239), or cuneate (3/239); laterally compressed; 0.6-2.986-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Spikelet callus glabrous (4/4); base obtuse (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (63/198), or sparsely hairy (15/198), or pubescent (97/198), or pilose (26/198), or bearded (8/198).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (239), or deciduous (1); shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets (14), or exceeding apex of florets (229); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or firmer than fertile lemma (239); parallel to lemmas (65), or gaping (176). Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (216), or elliptic (16), or oblong (11), or ovate (7); 0.5-1.022-1.5 length of upper glume; membranous (237), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or cartilaginous (1); without keels (2/239), or 1-keeled (237/239); 1 -veined (226/235), or 2 -veined (5/235), or 3 -veined (13/235). Lower glume lateral veins absent (225), or obscure (5), or distinct (14). Lower glume surface smooth (204), or asperulous (37), or scabrous (14); glabrous (238), or puberulous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex entire (239), or erose (1); truncate (1), or obtuse (7), or acute (185), or acuminate (60), or caudate (1); muticous (236), or mucronate (4), or awned (4). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (217), or elliptic (16), or oblong (12), or ovate (6); 0.8-1.415-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (237), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (226), or hyaline margins (14); without keels (2/239), or 1-keeled (237/239); 1 -veined (215/234), or 2 -veined (9/234), or 3 -veined (28/234). Upper glume surface smooth (203), or asperulous (34), or scabrous (17), or papillose (1); glabrous (239), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (239), or erose (1); truncate (1/239), or obtuse (6/239), or acute (186/239), or acuminate (61/239), or caudate (1/239); muticous (235), or mucronate (5), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate (21), or elliptic (91), or oblong (105), or ovate (51); dorsally compressed (1/1); hyaline (223), or membranous (9), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (6); without keel; 3 -veined (14/230), or 4 -veined (12/230), or 5 -veined (224/230). Lemma midvein extending to apex (1/1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (25/30), or distinct (1/30), or prominent (5/30); excurrent (59/119), or extending close to apex (65/119). Lemma surface smooth (218), or asperulous (8), or scaberulous (18), or scabrous (1); glabrous (188), or puberulous (9), or pubescent (24), or pilose (31), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (238), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (107), or erose (64), or dentate (72), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (16/72), or 3 -fid (2/72), or 4 -fid (55/72), or 5 -fid (3/72); incised 0.15-0.3-0.5 of lemma length; emarginate (2/195), or truncate (169/195), or obtuse (29/195), or acute (6/195); muticous (105), or mucronate (14), or awned (164); 1 -awned (137/146), or 2 -awned (1/146), or 3 -awned (5/146), or 5 -awned (3/146). Principal lemma awn apical (4/173), or subapical (15/173), or dorsal (154/173); straight (74/173), or curved (12/173), or flexuous (1/173), or geniculate (102/173). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (1/1). Palea present (180), or absent or minute (66); 0-0.5529-1 length of lemma; hyaline (173/180), or membranous (7/180); 0 -veined (11/77), or 1 -veined (2/77), or 2 -veined (68/77); without keels (2/180), or 2-keeled (179/180). Palea keels smooth (177/179), or scaberulous (1/179), or scabrous (1/179). Palea apex entire (3/8), or erose (1/8), or dentate (6/8); muticous (174/180), or with excurrent keel veins (6/180). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (1/1); barren (1/1); lanceolate (1/1). Apical sterile lemmas awned (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent (1/205), or 2 (204/205); membranous (203/203); acute (8/8). Anthers 1 (1/231), or 3 (230/231). Stigmas 2 (20/20). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (215/215); lanceolate (1/27), or fusiform (2/27), or ellipsoid (14/27), or oblong (6/27), or ovoid (5/27), or obovoid (1/27); isodiametric (5/6), or dorsally compressed (1/6); biconvex (5/5); smooth (5/5); apex unappendaged (8/8). Embryo 0.2-0.2305-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/174), or elliptic (4/174), or linear (168/174); 0.9 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (27), or Africa (53), or Temperate Asia (47), or Tropical Asia (27), or Australasia (54), or Pacific (7), or North America (39), or South America (62), or Antarctica (13).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to subulate
    Inflorescences
    Panicle usually much divided, rarely spike-like
    Spikelets
    Spikelets linear-lanceolate to oblong, small, often gaping and with the rhachilla prolonged beyond the floret; glumes persistent (rarely the spikelet falling entire), subequal, mostly lanceolate and acute to acuminate, membranous, often shining, 1(–3)-nerved; lemmas oblong to elliptic, shorter than the glumes, truncate or denticulate, thin, (3–)5-nerved with the nerves often excurrent into mucros, awnless or awned from the back; callus small, obtuse, glabrous or pubescent (rarely bearded); palea usually shorter than the lemma, sometimes obsolete
    Distribution
    Species 150–200; mainly in temperate and cold regions, especially in the northern hemisphere.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 4-20 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute; awned. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
    Distribution
    Europe, or Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Sinai, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Chatham Is., Crozet Is., Easter Is., Jamaica, Kerguelen, Marion-Prince Edward, Marquesas, New Caledonia, Norfolk Is., Samoa, South Australia, South Georgia, St.Helena

    Agrostis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6009], Brazil K001101140
    Gerard, P. [Cat. no. 3775], India K001119984
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3776], Nepal K001119985
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 3775], India K001119983
    Glaziou, A. [6773], Brazil K001101141
    Glaziou, A. [5434], Brazil K001101142
    Coll. Nat. d'Agric. de Dschang [1787], Cameroon K000182097
    Longui-Wagner [2895], Minas Gerais K000847033
    Araujo, A.A. [300], Brazil K001101139

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 61 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 10: 166 (1937).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 30 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 61 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 30 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 61 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 30 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 61 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0