1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Vernonia Schreb.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America, Northern America, Queensland and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
     Annual or perennial herbs, often with annual stems from woody rootstocks, or shrubs to trees
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite, sometimes radical, penninerved (rarely 3-5-nerved from the base), often glandular
    Capitulum
    Capitula homogamous, 1-many-flowered, in corymbiform cymes or various paniculate, spicate, or clustering inflorescences; involucre variously shaped; phyllaries free in several series, imbricate, the apex sometimes with a coloured appendage; receptacle plane or alveolate, sometimes the alveolae fimbriate
    Florets
    Florets normally bisexual and fertile, narrowly cylindric proximally, widening abruptly, with five regular lobes; anthers distally with linear or lanceolate appendage; style branches long-tapering with stigmatic papillae on the inner surface near the base, pilose beneath usually with simple hairs
    Fruits
    Achenes of various shapes, smooth or ribbed, with or without a distinct basal callus; pappus usually 2-seriate with the outer whorl short, of scales or setae, sometimes caducous, the inner whorl of long setae.
    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs (often suffrutescent in the Flora Zambesiaca area with annual stems from woody rootstocks) or small to large shrubs, woody scramblers or rarely small trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite, sometimes radical, sessile or petiolate, penninerved but sometimes 3–5-nerved from the base, often glandular.
    Capitulum
    Capitula homogamous, 1-many flowered, florets normally bisexual and fertile; capitula usually arranged in corymbiform cymes, sometimes scorpioidly cymose, or in various axillary or terminal clusters, spicate, paniculate, or solitary and terminal.
    Involucre
    Involucres cyathiform-campanulate, obconic, cylindric, or hemispheric.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries free in 2-many series, loosely or appressed imbricate; apices acute obtuse or rounded, often mucronate or aristate, sometimes with a membranous white or coloured appendage; receptacle flat or convex, plane or alveolate, the alveolae sometimes fimbriate.
    Corolla
    Corolla creamy-white, various shades of purple or blue, rarely orange, cylindric to narrowly infundibuliform or slender-tubular below and abruptly widened cylindric above, regularly 5-lobed.
    Anthers
    Anthers with a linear or lanceolate apical appendage; theca bases acute or obtuse.
    Style
    Style branches long tapering-subterete with stigmatic papillae on the inner surface towards the base, pilose or shortly hirsute outside, usually with sweeping hairs.
    Fruits
    Achenes subterete to ± laterally compressed, obpyramidal and 4–5-sided, oblong-obovoid, turbinate or subfusiform, 2–20-ribbed, sometimes smooth, sparsely to densely glandular, variously hairy, or glabrous, with or without a distinct basal callus.
    Seeds
    Pappus usually 2-seriate with an outer short whorl of scales or setae, sometimes caducous; inner whorl of long barbellate or subplumose, sometimes caducous, whitish purple or green setae, more rarely the outer pappus absent, sometimes inner pappus setae flattened or widened towards the apex.
    Pollen
    Pollen grains lophate, the ridges often spiny.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Dominican Republic, Haiti

    Vernonia Schreb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2013 Burchell [7900], Brazil K000955249
    Jul 1, 2013 Burchell [2058], Brazil K000955251
    Feb 1, 2008 Mwangoka, M.A. [3236], Tanzania K000438247
    Feb 1, 2008 Mlangwa, J.A. [1527], Tanzania K000438249
    Jan 1, 1966 Morton, J.K. [SL1703], Sierra Leone K000040179
    Harley, R.M. [H50404], Brazil 58971.000
    Harley, R.M. [H50404], Brazil 58994.000
    Hepper, F.N. [2181], Cameroon K000051702
    Gardner [3244], Goiás K000873985
    Gardner [3244], Goiás K000873986
    Hind, D.J.N. [H50967], Brazil 58889.000
    Hind, D.J.N. [H50037], Brazil 58996.000
    Hind, D.J.N. [3128], Brazil 63147.000
    Hind, D.J.N. [PCD 3134], Brazil 63210.000
    Hind, D.J.N. [3557], Brazil 63448.000
    Hind, D.J.N. [4107], Brazil 63469.000
    Giulietti, A.M. [PCD 2980], Brazil 63215.000
    Spruce, R. [3971], Peru K000200681
    Spruce, R. [3971], Peru K000200723
    Spruce, R. [4865], Peru K000200724
    Spruce, R. [4865], Peru K000200725
    Spruce, R. [4865], Peru K000200726
    Spruce, R. [3948], Peru K000200820
    Spruce, R. [3948], Peru K000200821
    Spruce, R. [3948], Peru K000200822
    Spruce, R. [s.n.] K000959696
    Guedes, M.L. [3013], Brazil 63456.000
    Michelson, A. [1189], Cameroon K000051544
    Mwangoka, M.A. [1262], Tanzania K000438251

    First published in 2: 541 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 3: 266. Nom. cons.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bull.43: 199–248 (1988).
    • Wild in Kirkia 11: 31–127 (1978).
    • Gen. Pl. 2: 541 (1791) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kalanda & Lisowski in Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 40 (2): 548 (1995)
    • K. Bremer, Asteraceae Clad. & Class.: 227 (1994)
    • G.V. Pope in F.Z. 6: 57 (1992)
    • C. Jeffrey in K.B. 43: 199-248 (1988)
    • Gen. Pl. 2: 541 (1791), nom. conserv.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/